In other parts of this website, you will find them, tales of intense paranormal experiences by both private individuals and the military as well. It has long been my contention that “Reality”, whatever that is, is much stranger than we think. Has CERN opened the gates to hell or what?? Or have there been escapees from places like Dulce?? Or have there been sincerely evil people doing some incredibly evil things out of some sick need? As the saying goes, “Only the Shadow knows and he is not telling.” What tells me that this phenomenon has been around for a very long time is the intensity of the tales from the Native Cultures.
Text source Wikipedia
The word appears in many Native American languages, and has many alternative translations. The source
of the English word is the Ojibwe word wiindigoo. In the Cree language it is wīhtikow, also
transliterated wetiko. Other transliterations include Wiindigoo, Weendigo, Windego, Wiindgoo, Windgo,
Windago, Windiga, Wendego, Windagoo, Widjigo, Wiijigoo, Wijigo, Weejigo, Wìdjigò, Wintigo, Wentigo,
Wehndigo, Wentiko, Windgoe, Wītikō, and Wintsigo.
A plural form windigoag is also spelled windegoag, wiindigooag, or windikouk.
The Proto-Algonquian term has been reconstructed as *wi·nteko·wa, which may have meant “owl“.
The Wechuge is a similar being that appears in the legends of the Athabaskan people of the Northwest
Pacific Coast. It too is cannibalistic; however, it is characterized as enlightened with ancestral insights.
The wendigo is part of the traditional belief system of a number of Algonquin-speaking peoples, including
the Ojibwe, the Saulteaux, the Cree, the Naskapi, and the Innu. Although descriptions can vary
somewhat, common to all these cultures is the view that the wendigo is a malevolent, cannibalistic,
supernatural being. They were strongly associated with winter, the north, coldness, famine, and
Basil H. Johnston, an Ojibwe teacher and scholar from Ontario, gives a description of a wendigo:
The Wendigo was gaunt to the point of emaciation, its desiccated skin pulled tightly over its
bones. With its bones pushing out against its skin, its complexion the ash-gray of death, and its
eyes pushed back deep into their sockets, the Wendigo looked like a gaunt skeleton recently
disinterred from the grave. What lips it had were tattered and bloody … Unclean and suffering
from suppuration of the flesh, the Wendigo gave off a strange and eerie odor of decay and
decomposition, of death and corruption.
In Ojibwe, Eastern Cree, Westmain Swampy Cree, Naskapi, and Innu lore, wendigos are often described
as giants that are many times larger than human beings, a characteristic absent from myths in other
Algonquian cultures. Whenever a wendigo ate another person, it would grow in proportion to the meal
it had just eaten, so it could never be full. Therefore, wendigos are portrayed as simultaneously
gluttonous and extremely thin due to starvation.
The wendigo is seen as the embodiment of gluttony, greed, and excess: never satisfied after killing and
consuming one person, they are constantly searching for new victims.
A wendigo need not lose the human’s powers of cognition or speech and in some depictions may clearly
communicate with its prospective victims or even threaten or taunt them. A specimen of folk story collected
in the early 20th century by Lottie Chicogquaw Marsden, an ethnographer of the Chippewas of Rama First
Nation, in which a wendigo also exhibits tool use, an ability to survive partial dismemberment, and
One time long ago a big Windigo stole an Indian boy, but the boy was too thin, so the Windigo
didn’t eat him up right away, but he travelled with the Indian boy waiting for him till he’d get
fat. The Windigo had a knife and he’d cut the boy on the hand to see if he was fat enough to
eat, but the boy didn’t get fat. They travelled too much. One day they came to an Indian village
and the Windigo sent the boy to the Indian village to get some things for him to eat. He just
gave the boy so much time to go there and back. The boy told the Indians that the Windigo
was near them, and showed them his hand where the Windigo cut him to see if he was fat
enough to eat. They heard the Windigo calling the boy. He said to the boy “Hurry up. Don’t
tell lies to those Indians.” All of these Indians went to where the Windigo was and cut off his
legs. They went back again to see if he was dead. He wasn’t dead. He was eating the juice
(marrow) from the inside of the bones of his legs that were cut off. The Indians asked the
Windigo if there was any fat on them. He said, “You bet there is, I have eaten lots of Indians,
no wonder they are fat.” The Indians then killed him and cut him to pieces. The end of this
In some traditions, humans overpowered by greed could turn into wendigos; the myth thus served as a
method of encouraging cooperation and moderation. Other sources say wendigos were created when a
human resorted to cannibalism to survive. Humans could also turn into wendigos by being in contact with
them for too long.
Among the Assiniboine, the Cree, and the Ojibwe, a satirical ceremonial dance is sometimes performed
during times of famine to reinforce the seriousness of the wendigo taboo. The ceremony, known as
wiindigookaanzhimowin, was performed during times of famine, and involved wearing masks and dancing
backward around a drum. The last known wendigo ceremony conducted in the United States was at
Lake Windigo of Star Island of Cass Lake, within the Leech Lake Indian Reservation in northern
In historical accounts of retroactively diagnosed Wendigo psychosis, it has been reported that humans
became possessed by the wendigo spirit, after being in a situation of needing food and having no other
choice besides cannibalism. In 1661, The Jesuit Relations reported:
Ce qui nous mit plus en peine, fut la nouvelle
que nous apprismes dés l’entrée du Lac, à
sçauoir : que les deputez par nostre
Conducteur, qui deuoient conuoquer les
Nations à la Mer du Nord, et leur donner le
rendez-vous pour nous y attendre, auoient
esté tuez l’Hiuer passé, d’une façon
What caused us greater concern was the
news that met us upon entering the Lake,
namely, that the men deputed by our
Conductor for the purpose of summoning
the Nations to the North Sea, and
assigning them a rendezvous, where they
were to await our coming, had met their
Taboo reinforcement ceremony
estonnante. Ces pauures gens furent saisis, à
ce qu’on nous a dit, d’vn mal qui nous est
inconnu, mais qui n’est pas bien
extraordinaire parmy les peuples que nous
cherchons : ils ne sont ny lunatiques, ny
hypocondriaques, ny phrenetiques; mais ils
ont vn mélange de toutes ces sortes de
maladies, qui, leur blessant l’imagination, leur
cause vne faim plus que canine, et les rend si
affamez de chair humaine, qu’ils se iettent sur
les femmes, sur les enfans, mesme sur les
hommes, comme de vrais loups-garous, et les
deuorent à belles dents, sans se pouuoir
rassasier ny saouler, cherchans tousiours
nouuelle proye, et plus auidement que plus
ils en ont mangé. C’est la maladie dont ces
députez furent atteints; et comme la mort est
l’vnique remede parmy ces bonnes gens,
pour arrester ces meurtres, ils ont esté
massacrez pour arrester le cours de leur
death the previous Winter in a very
strange manner. Those poor men
(according to the report given us) were
seized with an ailment unknown to us, but
not very unusual among the people we
were seeking. They are afflicted with
neither lunacy, hypochondria, nor frenzy;
but have a combination of all these
species of disease, which affects their
imaginations and causes them a more
than canine hunger. This makes them so
ravenous for human flesh that they
pounce upon women, children, and even
upon men, like veritable werewolves, and
devour them voraciously, without being
able to appease or glut their appetite—
ever seeking fresh prey, and the more
greedily the more they eat. This ailment
attacked our deputies; and, as death is
the sole remedy among those simple
people for checking such acts of murder,
they were slain in order to stay the course
of their madness.
Although in many recorded cases of Wendigo psychosis the individual has been killed to prevent
cannibalism from resulting, some Cree folklore recommends treatment by ingestion of fatty animal meats or
drinking animal grease; those treated may sometimes vomit ice as part of the curing process.
One of the more famous cases of Wendigo psychosis reported involved a Plains Cree trapper from Alberta,
named Swift Runner. During the winter of 1878, Swift Runner and his family were starving, and his
eldest son died. Twenty-five miles away from emergency food supplies at a Hudson’s Bay Company post,
Swift Runner butchered and ate his wife and five remaining children. Given that he resorted to
cannibalism so near to food supplies, and that he killed and consumed the remains of all those present, it
was revealed that Swift Runner’s was not a case of pure cannibalism as a last resort to avoid starvation, but
rather of a man with Wendigo psychosis. He eventually confessed and was executed by authorities at
Another well-known case involving Wendigo psychosis was that of Jack Fiddler, an Oji-Cree chief and
medicine man known for his powers at defeating wendigos. In some cases, this entailed killing people with
Wendigo psychosis. As a result, in 1907, Fiddler and his brother Joseph were arrested by the Canadian
authorities for homicide. Jack committed suicide, but Joseph was tried and sentenced to life in prison. He
ultimately was granted a pardon but died three days later in jail before receiving the news of this pardon.
Fascination with Wendigo psychosis among Western ethnographers, psychologists, and anthropologists led
to a hotly debated controversy in the 1980s over the historicity of this phenomenon. Some researchers
argued that, essentially, Wendigo psychosis was a fabrication, the result of naïve anthropologists taking
stories related to them at face value without observation. Others have pointed to a number of
credible eyewitness accounts, both by Algonquians and others, as evidence that Wendigo psychosis was a
factual historical phenomenon.
The frequency of Wendigo psychosis cases decreased sharply in the 20th century as Boreal Algonquian
people came into greater and greater contact with European ideologies and more sedentary, less rural,
In his 2004 treatise Revenge of the Windigo on disorders and treatments of the behavioral health industry in
the United States and Canada that are peculiar to indigenous people, James B. Waldram wrote,
…no actual cases of windigo psychosis have ever been studied, and Lou Marano‘s scathing
critique in 1985 should have killed off the cannibal monster within the psychiatric annals. The
windigo, however, continues to seek revenge for this attempted scholarly execution by
periodically duping unsuspecting passers-by, like psychiatrists, into believing that windigo
psychosis not only exists but that a psychiatrist could conceivably encounter a patient suffering
from this disorder in his or her practice today! Windigo psychosis may well be the most perfect
example of the construction of an Aboriginal mental disorder by the scholarly professions, and
its persistence dramatically underscores how constructions of the Aboriginal by these
professions have, like Frankenstein’s monster, taken on a life of their own.
The 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
(ICD) classifies “Windigo” as a culture-specific disorder, describing it as “Rare, historic accounts of
cannibalistic obsession… Symptoms included depression, homicidal or suicidal thoughts, and a delusional,
compulsive wish to eat human flesh… Some controversial new studies question the syndrome’s legitimacy,
claiming cases were actually a product of hostile accusations invented to justify the victim’s ostracism or
In addition to denoting a cannibalistic monster from certain traditional folklore, some Native Americans
also understand the wendigo conceptually. As a concept, the wendigo can apply to any person, idea, or
movement infected by a corrosive drive toward self-aggrandizing greed and excessive consumption, traits
that sow disharmony and destruction if left unchecked. Ojibwe scholar Brady DeSanti asserts that the
wendigo “can be understood as a marker indicating… a person… imbalanced both internally and toward the
larger community of human and spiritual beings around them.” Out of equilibrium and estranged by
their communities, individuals thought to be afflicted by the wendigo spirit unravel and destroy the
ecological balance around them. Chippewa author Louise Erdrich‘s novel The Round House, winner of the
National Book Award, depicts a situation where an individual person becomes a wendigo. The novel
describes its primary antagonist, a rapist whose violent crimes desecrate a sacred site, as a wendigo who
must be killed because he threatens the reservation’s safety.
In addition to characterizing individual people who exhibit destructive tendencies, the wendigo can also
describe movements and events with similarly negative effects. According to Professor Chris Schedler, the
figure of the wendigo represents “consuming forms of exclusion and assimilation” through which groups
dominate other groups.” This application allows Native Americans to describe colonialism and its
agents as wendigos since the process of colonialism ejected natives from their land and threw the natural
world out of balance. DeSanti points to the 1999 horror film Ravenous as an illustration of this argument
equating “the cannibal monster” to “American colonialism and manifest destiny”. This movie features a
character who articulates that expansion brings displacement and destruction as side effects, explaining that
“manifest destiny” and “western expansion” will bring “thousands of gold-hungry Americans… over the
mountains in search of new lives… This country is seeking to be whole… Stretching out its arms… and
consuming all it can. And we merely follow”.
As a concept or metaphor
As a concept, wendigo can apply to situations other than some Native American-European relations. It can
serve as a metaphor explaining any pattern of domination by which groups subjugate and dominate or
violently destroy and displace. Joe Lockhard, English professor at Arizona State University, argues that
wendigos are agents of “social cannibalism” who know “no provincial or national borders; all human
cultures have been visited by shape-shifting wendigos. Their visitations speak to the inseparability of
human experience… National identity is irrelevant to this borderless horror.” Lockhard’s ideas explain
that wendigos are an expression of a dark aspect of human nature: the drive toward greed, consumption,
and disregard for other life in the pursuit of self-aggrandizement.
Romantic scholar and documentarian Emily Zarka, also a professor at Arizona State University, observes
that two commonalities among the indigenous cultures of Algonquian language family speakers are that
they are situated in climes where harsh winters are frequent and may be accompanied by starvation. She
states that the wendigo symbolically represents three major concepts: it is the incarnation of winter, the
embodiment of hunger, and the personification of selfishness.
Although distinct from how it appears in the traditional lore, one of the first appearances of a character
inspired by, or named after, a wendigo in non-Indigenous literature is Algernon Blackwood‘s 1910 novella
The Wendigo. Joe Nazare wrote that Blackwood’s “subtly-demonizing rhetoric transforms the
Wendigo from a native myth into a descriptive template for the Indian savage.”
Blackwood’s work has influenced many of the subsequent portrayals in mainstream horror fiction,
such as August Derleth‘s “The Thing that Walked on the Wind” and “Ithaqua” (1933 and 1941), which
in turn inspired the character in Stephen King‘s novel Pet Sematary, where it is a personification of evil,
an ugly grinning creature with yellow-grey eyes, ears replaced by ram’s horns, white vapor coming from its
nostrils, and a pointed, decaying yellow tongue. These works set the template for later portrayals in
popular culture, at times even replacing the Native American lore. In an early short story by Thomas
Pynchon, “Mortality and Mercy in Vienna” (first published in 1959), the plot centers around a character
developing Wendigo syndrome and going on a killing spree.
A character inspired by the wendigo appears in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Created by the writer Steve Englehart and artist Herb Trimpe, the monster is the result of a curse that afflicts
those who commit acts of cannibalism. It first appeared in The Incredible Hulk #162 (April 1973), and
again in the October 1974 issue.
Without explicitly using the term, the 1995 novel Solar Storms by Chickasaw author and poet Linda K.
Hogan both explored the mythology of the wendigo and used the creatures as a device to interrogate issues
of independence, spirituality, and politics, an individual’s relationship to the family, and as a metaphor for
corporate voracity, exploitation, and power viewed as a form of cannibalism.
Other creatures based on the legend, or named for it, appear in various films and television shows,
including Dark Was the Night and Ravenous. Television series include Teen Wolf, Supernatural,
Blood Ties, Charmed, Grimm, and Hannibal, where an FBI profiler has recurring dreams or
visions of a wendigo that symbolizes the titular cannibalistic serial killer. A wendigo appears in My
Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic “Hearth’s Warming Eve” under the pun title of “Windigo”, and in the
DuckTales Christmas special, “Last Christmas!”, in which the creatures are described as “poor souls turned
into monsters by obsession and desperation.” A wendigo also appears in the 2020 horror film The
In popular culture
A person dressed as the
wendigo character from the
television series Hannibal at
Fan Expo 2015
The 2015 horror survival video game Until Dawn by Supermassive Games
features wendigos as the main antagonists. Wrist, the 2016 debut novel
by Canadian horror fiction writer Nathan Niigan Noodin Adler, was based
on the story of the wendigo.
The 2015 series Summoner by Taran Matharu featured a type of demon
known as a Wendigo.
In the 2018 role-playing game Fallout 76 by Bethesda Game Studios,
wendigos are featured as one of the cryptid enemies found in the area of
Appalachia; mutated from people who consumed human flesh in
In the 2018 first-person shooter video game Dusk, wendigos are featured as
strong enemies that remain invisible to the player until they receive
damage. Several of these creatures also appear in the game’s cover
In the 2021 film Antlers by Scott Cooper, Frank, Luca’s father, transforms
into a wendigo, which is portrayed as a deer-like creature with a glowing heart that moves from person to
person with a never ending hunger. Guillermo del Toro, producer of the film, developed the wendigo on
the basis that the more the creature eats, the more it gets hungry and the more it gets hungry, the weaker it
In the 2022 Thai film Faces of Anne by the director and the co-writer Kongdej Jaturanrasamee, is about a
young woman named Anne who constantly changes her face every night. She suddenly wakes up in an
enclosed place like hospital. She finds that it’s not only herself that her name is Anne, but the other young
woman in the other rooms is Anne as well. Every night a deer-headed demon named Vedigo comes out to
kill them. It was adapted from Wendigo. The deer symbolizes both good and evil.
1. Brightman (1988:337, 339, 343, 364)
2. Zarka, Emily (October 17, 2019). “Windigo: The Flesh-Eating Monster of Native American
Legend” (https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=guiuXIMZ2vE). Monstrum. Season 1. Episode
13. PBS Digital Studios. Archived (https://ghostarchive.org/varchive/youtube/20211212/guiu
XIMZ2vE) from the original on December 12, 2021. Retrieved March 20, 2021.
3. Ransom, Amy J. (2015). “The Changing Shape of a Shape-Shifter: The French-Canadian
‘Loup-garou’ “. Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts. Armonk, New York: International
Association for the Fantastic in the Arts. 26 (2): 251−275. ISSN 0897-0521 (https://www.worl
dcat.org/issn/0897-0521). JSTOR 26321112 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/26321112).
OCLC 7973889300 (https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/7973889300).
4. Horn, Kahntineta (March 14, 2013). “Boogie Men” (http://mohawknationnews.com/blog/tag/w
indigo-psychosis/). mohawknationnews.com. Kahnawake: Mohawk Nation News. Retrieved
August 24, 2018.
5. Brightman (1988:337–8, 374)
6. Brightman (1988:344)
7. Wolvegrey, Arok (2001). Cree: Words. Regina, Saskatchewan: University of Regina Press.
8. Merasty, Marie (1974). The World of Wetiko: Tales from the Woodland Cree. Saskatchewan
Indian Cultural College.
9. “Windigo, the Ice Cannibal (Wendigo, Wiindigoo, Windgo, Windego)” (http://www.native-lan
guages.org/windigo.htm). native-languages.org. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Native Languages
of the Americas. 2015. Retrieved August 22, 2018.
10. Goddard (1969), cited in Brightman (1988:340)
11. Ridington, Robin (1967). “Wechuge and Windigo: A Comparison of Cannibal Belief Among
Boreal Forest Athapaskans and Algonkians”. Anthropologica. Toronto, Ontario, Canada:
University of Toronto Press. 18 (2): 107–129. doi:10.2307/25604963 (https://doi.org/10.230
7%2F25604963). JSTOR 25604963 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/25604963).
12. Brightman (1988:359, 362); Parker (1960:603)
13. Brightman (1988:337, 339)
14. Brightman (1988:362)
15. Johnston (2001:221)
16. Graham, John Russell; John Coates; Barbara Swartzentruber; Brian Ouellette; “The
ge&q=260&f=false)” in Spirituality and Social Work: Select Canadian Readings; Canadian
Scholars’ Press, 2007. p.260
17. Johnston (2001:222, 226); Johnston (1990:166); Schwarz (1969:11)
18. Goldman, Marlene (2005). Rewriting Apocalypse in Canadian Fiction (https://books.google.c
om/books?id=JJN3sY6TI0gC&q=wendigo+gluttony&pg=PA89). Montreal, Quebec, Canada:
McGill-Queen’s Press. p. 89. ISBN 978-0773572942.
19. Marsden, Lottie Chicogquaw; Laidlaw, George Edward (1918). Orr, Roland B. (ed.). “Ojibwa
Myths and Tales”. Arch
ӕological Report of the Canadian Institute. Archӕological Report
Being Part of Appendix to the Report of the Minister of Education, Ontario. Toronto: A.T.
Wilgress. 30: 104−105. hdl:2027/njp.32101072319583 (https://hdl.handle.net/2027%2Fnjp.3
2101072319583?urlappend=%3Bseq=118). OCLC 270884230 (https://www.worldcat.org/oc
lc/270884230). Story No 104.
20. Johnston (2001:222–225); Johnston (1990:167)
21. “The Myth of the Wendigo” (http://sites.psu.edu/tetirclblog/2015/02/24/the-myth-of-the-wendi
22. Warren, William W. (1984). History of the Ojibway People (2 ed.). St. Paul, Minnesota:
Borealis Books. ISBN 978-0873516433.
23. “Relations des Jésuites contenant ce qui s’est passé de plus remarquable dans les
missions des Pères de la Compagnie de Jésus dans la Nouvelle-France” (http://archive.org/
details/relationsdesjs03jesu). Québec : Augustin Coté. July 13, 1858 – via Internet Archive.
24. Thwaites, Reuben Gold, ed. (1899). “The Jesuit Relations: Travels and Expectations of the
Jesuit Missionaries in New France, 1610—1791″ (http://moses.creighton.edu/kripke/jesuitrel
ations/relations_46.html). Vol. XLVI. Translated by Tomasz Mentrak. Cleveland, Ohio: The
Burrows Brothers Company.
25. Rohrl, Vivian J. (February 1970). “A Nutritional Factor in Windigo Psychosis”. Brief
Communications. American Anthropologist. New Series. American Anthropological
Association. 72 (1): 97−101. doi:10.1525/aa.1970.72.1.02a00120 (https://doi.org/10.1525%2
Faa.1970.72.1.02a00120). ISSN 0002-7294 (https://www.worldcat.org/issn/0002-7294).
JSTOR 670759 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/670759). OCLC 4636246728 (https://www.world
26. Brightman (1988:352–3)
27. Hanon, Andrew (July 20, 2008). “Evil spirit made man eat family” (https://archive.today/2012
Cnews. Archived from the original (http://cnews.canoe.ca/CNEWS/WeirdNews/2008/07/20/6
213011-sun.html) on July 9, 2012. Retrieved August 16, 2008.
28. Brightman (1988:353, 373)
29. Brightman (1988:352)
30. Fiddler, Thomas; Stevens, James R. (1985). Killing the Shamen. Manotick, Ontario:
Penumbra Press. ISBN 978-0920806814.
31. Marano, Lou (1982). “Windigo Psychosis: The Anatomy of an Emic-Etic Confusion”. Current
Anthropology. Chicago, Illinois: University of Chicago Press. 23: 385–412.
doi:10.1086/202868 (https://doi.org/10.1086%2F202868). S2CID 147398948 (https://api.se
32. Brightman (1988:355)
33. Brightman (1988:361)
34. Waldram, James Burgess (2004). Revenge of the Windigo: The Construction of the Mind
and Mental Health of North American Aboriginal Peoples. University of Toronto Press.
p. 200. doi:10.3138/9781442683815 (https://doi.org/10.3138%2F9781442683815).
ISBN 0802086004. LCCN 2004301995 (https://lccn.loc.gov/2004301995). OCLC 53396855
35. ICD-10: Diagnostic criteria for research (https://www.who.int/entity/classifications/icd/en/GR
NBOOK.pdf) (PDF). Geneva: World Health Organization. 1993. pp. 213–225. Retrieved
July 22, 2020.
36. DeSanti, Brady (2015). “The Cannibal Talking Head: Portrayals of the Wendigo ‘Monster’ in
Popular Culture and Ojibwe Traditions”. Journal of Religion and Popular Culture. 27 (3):
197. doi:10.3138/jrpc.27.3.2938 (https://doi.org/10.3138%2Fjrpc.27.3.2938).
S2CID 148238264 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:148238264).
37. Schleder, Christoper (2011). “Wiindigoo Sovereignty and Native Transmotion in Gerald
Vizenor’s Bearheart”. Studies in American Indian Literatures. 23 (3): 32.
38. DeSanti, Brady (2015). “The Cannibal Talking Head: Portrayals of the Wendigo ‘Monster’ in
Popular Culture and Ojibwe Traditions”. Journal of Religion and Popular Culture. 27 (3):
195. doi:10.3138/jrpc.27.3.2938 (https://doi.org/10.3138%2Fjrpc.27.3.2938).
S2CID 148238264 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:148238264).
39. Lockhard, Joe (2008). Vizenor, Gerald (ed.). Facing the Windigoo: Gerald Vizenor and Primo
Levi. Lincoln, Nebraska: University of Nebraska Press. pp. 209–219.
40. Blackwood, Algernon (2014). Kellermeyer, M. Grant (ed.). The Willows, The Wendigo, &
Other Horrors. Oldstyle Tales Press. pp. 215–263. ISBN 9781507564011.
41. Smallman (2014:68)
42. Nazare, Joe (2000). “The Horror! The Horror? The Appropriation, and Reclamation, of
Native American Mythology”. Journal of the Fantastic in the Arts. Armonk, New York:
International Association for the Fantastic in the Arts. 11 (1 (41)): 24–51. ISSN 0897-0521 (ht
tps://www.worldcat.org/issn/0897-0521). JSTOR 43308417 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/433
08417). OCLC 7786132167 (https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/7786132167).
43. Heller, Terry. “Love, and Death in Stephen King’s ‘Pet Sematary’ “ (http://www.public.coe.ed
u/~theller/essays/petsem.htm). Retrieved March 29, 2009.
44. Hulk #181
45. Hans, Birgit (Summer 2003). “Water and Ice: Restoring Balance to the World in Linda
Hogan’s Solar Storms“. North Dakota Quarterly. Grand Forks, North Dakota: University of
North Dakota. 70 (3): 93–104. hdl:2027/mdp.39015057941141 (https://hdl.handle.net/2027%
2Fmdp.39015057941141?urlappend=%3Bseq=99). ISSN 0029-277X (https://www.worldcat.
org/issn/0029-277X). OCLC 109179839 (https://www.worldcat.org/oclc/109179839).
46. DiMarco, Danette (2011). “Going Wendigo: The Emergence of the Iconic Monster in
Margaret Atwood’s Oryx and Crake and Antonia Bird’s Ravenous”. College Literature. 38
(4): 134–155. doi:10.1353/lit.2011.0038 (https://doi.org/10.1353%2Flit.2011.0038).
47. “Supernatural – Season 1, Episode 2: Wendigo” (http://www.tv.com/shows/supernatural/wen
digo-440370/). TV.com. September 20, 2005. Retrieved September 20, 2016.
48. “Blood Ties: Heart of Ice (2007)” (http://www.tv.com/blood-ties/heart-of-ice/episode/997105/r
eviews.html?review_id=375533). TV.com. Retrieved April 19, 2007.
49. “Charmed: The Wendigo” (http://www.tv.com/shows/charmed/the-wendigo-1055/). TV.com.
50. “Grimm: To Protect and Serve Man” (http://www.tv.com/shows/grimm/to-protect-and-serve-m
51. “The Wendigo in Hannibal” (http://www.fullerverse.com/2015/05/the-wendigo-in-hannibal/).
52. “Last Christmas!”. DuckTales. Season 2. Episode 28. January 12, 2018.
53. Mack, Andrew (October 15, 2020). “The Retreat Trailer: The Wendigo Torments A Lone
Hiker in Bruce Wemple’s New Horror” (https://screenanarchy.com/2020/10/the-retreat-trailer.
html). Screen Anarchy. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
54. Gingold, Michael (October 16, 2020). “There’s No “Retreat” from the Wendigo; Trailer &
Poster” (https://rue-morgue.com/theres-no-retreat-from-the-wendigo-trailer-poster/). Rue
Morgue. Retrieved December 5, 2020.
55. Dahl, Dakota (November 30, 2020). “Movie Review: Don’t Run Away from “The Retreat” “ (ht
tps://www.rue-morgue.com/movie-review-dont-run-away-from-the-retreat/). Rue Morgue.
Retrieved December 5, 2020.
56. “Supermassive Games Until Dawn” (https://www.supermassivegames.com/games/until-daw
n). Super Massive Games.
57. O’Connell, Grace (August 9, 2016). “The In Character Interview with Nathan Niigan Noodin
dler). Open Book. Retrieved October 4, 2022.
58. “Demons/Gallery | Fantasy creatures mythology, Mythical monsters, Mythical creatures art”
(https://www.pinterest.com/pin/694469205020314845/). Pinterest. Retrieved January 9,
59. “Fallout 76 Creatures: Bethesda Tells Tales of the Wendigo” (https://www.vgr.com/fallout-76-
creatures-tales-wendigo/). www.vgr.com/. November 4, 2018.
60. “The Scariest Enemies In Dusk” (https://www.thegamer.com/dusk-scariest-enemies/).
www.thegamer.com. October 30, 2021.
61. “DUSK (2018)” (https://howlongtobeat.com/game?id=50829&s=reviews). How Long to Beat.
December 10, 2018.
62. Song, Katie (October 28, 2021). “ ‘Antlers’ Director Scott Cooper on the Wendigo Within:
‘You Can’t Escape It’ “ (https://variety.com/2021/film/news/antlers-scott-cooper-guillermo-del-t
oro-wendigo-1235099049/). Variety. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
63. Pagan, Beatrice. “ANTLERS: GUILLERMO DEL TORO E SCOTT COOPER SVELANO IL
SIGNIFICATO DEL WENDIGO” (https://movieplayer.it/news/antlers-guillermo-del-toro-scott-
cooper-significato-wendigo_84325/). movieplayer.it. Retrieved November 1, 2021.
Brightman, Robert A. (1988). “The Windigo in the Material World” (https://web.archive.org/w
Ethnohistory. 35 (4): 337–379. doi:10.2307/482140 (https://doi.org/10.2307%2F482140).
JSTOR 482140 (https://www.jstor.org/stable/482140). Archived from the original (https://anal
epsis.files.wordpress.com/2015/02/windigo2.pdf) (PDF) on April 8, 2019.
Colombo, J.R. ed. Wendigo. Western Producer Prairie Books, Saskatoon: 1982.
Goddard, Ives (1969). “Owls and Cannibals: Two Algonquian Etymologies”. Paper
Presented at the Second Algonquian Conference, St. John’s, Newfoundland.
Johnston, Basil (1990) . Ojibway Heritage. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.
Johnston, Basil (2001) . The Manitous. St. Paul: Minnesota Historical Society Press.
Marano, Lou (1982). “Windigo Psychosis: The Anatomy of an Emic-Etic Confusion”. Current
Anthropology. 23: 385–412. doi:10.1086/202868 (https://doi.org/10.1086%2F202868).
S2CID 147398948 (https://api.semanticscholar.org/CorpusID:147398948).
Parker, Seymour (1960). “The Wiitiko Psychosis in the Context of Ojibwa Personality and
Culture” (https://doi.org/10.1525%2Faa.1960.62.4.02a00050). American Anthropologist. 62
(4): 603–623. doi:10.1525/aa.1960.62.4.02a00050 (https://doi.org/10.1525%2Faa.1960.62.4.
Smallman, Shawn (2014). Dangerous Spirits: The Windigo in Myth and History. Victoria,
BC: Heritage House Publishing Company. ISBN 9781772030334.
Teicher, Morton I. (1961). “Windigo Psychosis: A Study of Relationship between Belief and
Behaviour among the Indians of Northeastern Canada.” In Proceedings of the 1960 Annual
Spring Meeting of the American Ethnological Society, ed. Verne P. Ray. Seattle: University
of Washington Press.
Seeing Wetiko: on Capitalism, Mind Viruses, and Antidotes for a World in Transition (https://
“Windigo: The Flesh-Eating Monster of Native American Legend” (https://www.pbs.org/vide
documentary short series from PBS Digital Studios
Retrieved from “https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Wendigo&oldid=1119924450“
This page was last edited on 4 November 2022, at 04:18 (UTC).
Text is available under the Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License 3.0; additional terms may apply. By
Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., a non-profit organization.
64. Hanachan (October 18, 2022). “5 Facts of Anne เจาะเบื