What is Real, and What is Myth?? – Wendigos, Werewolves, Dogmen, Mothman and Many, Many More – Audio and Text

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In other parts of this website, you will find them, tales of intense paranormal experiences by both private individuals and the military as well. It has long been my contention that “Reality”, whatever that is, is much stranger than we think. Has CERN opened the gates to hell or what??  Or have there been escapees from places like Dulce??  Or have there been sincerely evil people doing some incredibly evil things out of some sick need?  As the saying goes, “Only the Shadow knows and he is not telling.”  What tells me that this phenomenon has been around for a very long time is the intensity of the tales from the Native Cultures.

Text  source Wikipedia

The word appears in many Native American languages, and has many alternative translations. The source
of the English word is the
Ojibwe word wiindigoo.[6] In the Cree language it is wīhtikow,[7] also
wetiko.[8] Other transliterations include[9] Wiindigoo, Weendigo, Windego, Wiindgoo, Windgo,
, Windiga, Wendego, Windagoo, Widjigo, Wiijigoo, Wijigo, Weejigo, Wìdjigò, Wintigo, Wentigo,
, Wentiko, Windgoe, Wītikō, and Wintsigo.
A plural form
windigoag is also spelled windegoag, wiindigooag, or windikouk.[9]
Proto-Algonquian term has been reconstructed as *wi·nteko·wa, which may have meant “owl“.[10]
Wechuge is a similar being that appears in the legends of the Athabaskan people of the Northwest
Pacific Coast
. It too is cannibalistic; however, it is characterized as enlightened with ancestral insights.[11]
The wendigo is part of the traditional belief system of a number of
Algonquin-speaking peoples, including
Ojibwe, the Saulteaux, the Cree, the Naskapi, and the Innu.[12] Although descriptions can vary
somewhat, common to all these cultures is the view that the wendigo is a
malevolent, cannibalistic,
being.[13] They were strongly associated with winter, the north, coldness, famine, and
Basil H. Johnston
, an Ojibwe teacher and scholar from Ontario, gives a description of a wendigo:
The Wendigo was gaunt to the point of emaciation, its desiccated skin pulled tightly over its

bones. With its bones pushing out against its skin, its complexion the ash-gray of death, and its

eyes pushed back deep into their sockets, the Wendigo looked like a gaunt skeleton recently

disinterred from the grave. What lips it had were tattered and bloody … Unclean and suffering

from suppuration of the flesh, the Wendigo gave off a strange and eerie odor of decay and

decomposition, of death and corruption.
In Ojibwe, Eastern Cree, Westmain Swampy Cree,
Naskapi, and Innu lore, wendigos are often described
as giants that are many times larger than human beings, a characteristic absent from myths in other

Algonquian cultures.
[16] Whenever a wendigo ate another person, it would grow in proportion to the meal
it had just eaten, so it could never be full.
[17] Therefore, wendigos are portrayed as simultaneously
gluttonous and extremely thin due to starvation.

The wendigo is seen as the embodiment of gluttony, greed, and excess: never satisfied after killing and

consuming one person, they are constantly searching for new victims.
A wendigo need not lose the human’s powers of cognition or speech and in some depictions may clearly

communicate with its prospective victims or even threaten or taunt them. A specimen of folk story collected

in the early 20th century by Lottie Chicogquaw Marsden, an ethnographer of the
Chippewas of Rama First




Nation, in which a wendigo also exhibits tool use, an ability to survive partial dismemberment, and
, reads:[19]
One time long ago a big Windigo stole an Indian boy, but the boy was too thin, so the Windigo

didn’t eat him up right away, but he travelled with the Indian boy waiting for him till he’d get

fat. The Windigo had a knife and he’d cut the boy on the hand to see if he was fat enough to

eat, but the boy didn’t get fat. They travelled too much. One day they came to an Indian village

and the Windigo sent the boy to the Indian village to get some things for him to eat. He just

gave the boy so much time to go there and back. The boy told the Indians that the Windigo

was near them, and showed them his hand where the Windigo cut him to see if he was fat

enough to eat. They heard the Windigo calling the boy. He said to the boy “Hurry up. Don’t

tell lies to those Indians.” All of these Indians went to where the Windigo was and cut off his

legs. They went back again to see if he was dead. He wasn’t dead. He was eating the juice

marrow) from the inside of the bones of his legs that were cut off. The Indians asked the
Windigo if there was any fat on them. He said, “You bet there is, I have eaten lots of Indians,

no wonder they are fat.” The Indians then killed him and cut him to pieces. The end of this

Giant Windigo.

In some traditions, humans overpowered by greed could turn into wendigos; the myth thus served as a

method of encouraging cooperation and moderation. Other sources say wendigos were created when a

human resorted to cannibalism to survive. Humans could also turn into wendigos by being in contact with

them for too long.
Among the
Assiniboine, the Cree, and the Ojibwe, a satirical ceremonial dance is sometimes performed
during times of famine to reinforce the seriousness of the wendigo
taboo. The ceremony, known as
, was performed during times of famine, and involved wearing masks and dancing
backward around a drum.
[21] The last known wendigo ceremony conducted in the United States was at
Lake Windigo
of Star Island of Cass Lake, within the Leech Lake Indian Reservation in northern
In historical accounts of retroactively diagnosed Wendigo psychosis, it has been reported that humans

became possessed by the wendigo spirit, after being in a situation of needing food and having no other

choice besides cannibalism. In 1661,
The Jesuit Relations reported:
Ce qui nous mit plus en peine, fut la nouvelle

que nous apprismes dés l’entrée du Lac, à

sçauoir : que les deputez par nostre

Conducteur, qui deuoient conuoquer les

Nations à la Mer du Nord, et leur donner le

rendez-vous pour nous y attendre, auoient

esté tuez l’Hiuer passé, d’une façon

What caused us greater concern was the

news that met us upon entering the Lake,

namely, that the men deputed by our

Conductor for the purpose of summoning

the Nations to the North Sea, and

assigning them a rendezvous, where they

were to await our coming, had met their

Human cannibalism

Taboo reinforcement ceremony


estonnante. Ces pauures gens furent saisis, à
ce qu’on nous a dit, d’vn mal qui nous est

inconnu, mais qui n’est pas bien

extraordinaire parmy les peuples que nous

cherchons : ils ne sont ny lunatiques, ny

hypocondriaques, ny phrenetiques; mais ils

ont vn mélange de toutes ces sortes de

maladies, qui, leur blessant l’imagination, leur

cause vne faim plus que canine, et les rend si

affamez de chair humaine, qu’ils se iettent sur

les femmes, sur les enfans, mesme sur les

hommes, comme de vrais loups-garous, et les

deuorent à belles dents, sans se pouuoir

rassasier ny saouler, cherchans tousiours

nouuelle proye, et plus auidement que plus

ils en ont mangé. C’est la maladie dont ces

députez furent atteints; et comme la mort est

l’vnique remede parmy ces bonnes gens,

pour arrester ces meurtres, ils ont esté

massacrez pour arrester le cours de leur

death the previous Winter in a very

strange manner. Those poor men

(according to the report given us) were

seized with an ailment unknown to us, but

not very unusual among the people we

were seeking. They are afflicted with

neither lunacy, hypochondria, nor frenzy;

but have a combination of all these

species of disease, which affects their

imaginations and causes them a more

than canine hunger. This makes them so

ravenous for human flesh that they

pounce upon women, children, and even

upon men, like veritable werewolves, and

devour them voraciously, without being

able to appease or glut their appetite—

ever seeking fresh prey, and the more

greedily the more they eat. This ailment

attacked our deputies; and, as death is

the sole remedy among those simple

people for checking such acts of murder,

they were slain in order to stay the course

of their madness.
Although in many recorded cases of Wendigo psychosis the individual has been killed to prevent

cannibalism from resulting, some Cree folklore recommends treatment by ingestion of fatty animal meats or

drinking animal grease; those treated may sometimes vomit ice as part of the curing process.
One of the more famous cases of Wendigo psychosis reported involved a
Plains Cree trapper from Alberta,
named Swift Runner.
[26][27] During the winter of 1878, Swift Runner and his family were starving, and his
eldest son died. Twenty-five miles away from emergency food supplies at a
Hudson’s Bay Company post,
Swift Runner butchered and ate his wife and five remaining children.
[28] Given that he resorted to
cannibalism so near to food supplies, and that he killed and consumed the remains of all those present, it

was revealed that Swift Runner’s was not a case of pure cannibalism as a last resort to avoid starvation, but

rather of a man with Wendigo psychosis.
[28] He eventually confessed and was executed by authorities at
Fort Saskatchewan
Another well-known case involving Wendigo psychosis was that of
Jack Fiddler, an Oji-Cree chief and
medicine man
known for his powers at defeating wendigos. In some cases, this entailed killing people with
Wendigo psychosis. As a result, in 1907, Fiddler and his brother Joseph were arrested by the Canadian

authorities for homicide. Jack committed suicide, but Joseph was tried and sentenced to life in prison. He

ultimately was granted a pardon but died three days later in jail before receiving the news of this pardon.
Fascination with Wendigo psychosis among Western
ethnographers, psychologists, and anthropologists led
to a hotly debated controversy in the 1980s over the
historicity of this phenomenon. Some researchers
argued that, essentially, Wendigo psychosis was a fabrication, the result of naïve anthropologists taking

stories related to them at face value without observation.
[31][32] Others have pointed to a number of
credible eyewitness accounts, both by Algonquians and others, as evidence that Wendigo psychosis was a

factual historical phenomenon.

The frequency of Wendigo psychosis cases decreased sharply in the 20th century as Boreal Algonquian
people came into greater and greater contact with European ideologies and more sedentary, less rural,

In his 2004 treatise
Revenge of the Windigo on disorders and treatments of the behavioral health industry in
the United States and Canada
that are peculiar to indigenous people, James B. Waldram wrote,[34]
…no actual cases of windigo psychosis have ever been studied, and
Lou Marano‘s scathing
critique in 1985
should have killed off the cannibal monster within the psychiatric annals. The
windigo, however, continues to seek revenge for this attempted scholarly execution by

periodically duping unsuspecting passers-by, like psychiatrists, into believing that windigo

psychosis not only exists but that a psychiatrist could conceivably encounter a patient suffering

from this disorder in his or her practice today! Windigo psychosis may well be the most perfect

example of the construction of an Aboriginal mental disorder by the scholarly professions, and

its persistence dramatically underscores how constructions of the Aboriginal by these

professions have, like
Frankenstein’s monster, taken on a life of their own.
The 10th revision of the
International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems
(ICD) classifies “Windigo” as a
culture-specific disorder, describing it as “Rare, historic accounts of
cannibalistic obsession… Symptoms included depression, homicidal or suicidal thoughts, and a delusional,

compulsive wish to eat human flesh… Some controversial new studies question the syndrome’s legitimacy,

claiming cases were actually a product of hostile accusations invented to justify the victim’s ostracism or

In addition to denoting a cannibalistic monster from certain traditional folklore, some Native Americans

also understand the wendigo conceptually. As a concept, the wendigo can apply to any person, idea, or

movement infected by a corrosive drive toward self-aggrandizing greed and excessive consumption, traits

that sow disharmony and destruction if left unchecked.
Ojibwe scholar Brady DeSanti asserts that the
wendigo “can be understood as a marker indicating… a person… imbalanced both internally and toward the

larger community of human and spiritual beings around them.”
[36] Out of equilibrium and estranged by
their communities, individuals thought to be afflicted by the wendigo spirit unravel and destroy the

ecological balance around them. Chippewa author
Louise Erdrich‘s novel The Round House, winner of the
National Book Award
, depicts a situation where an individual person becomes a wendigo. The novel
describes its primary antagonist, a rapist whose violent crimes desecrate a sacred site, as a wendigo who

must be killed because he threatens the reservation’s safety.

In addition to characterizing individual people who exhibit destructive tendencies, the wendigo can also

describe movements and events with similarly negative effects. According to Professor Chris Schedler, the

figure of the wendigo represents “consuming forms of exclusion and assimilation” through which groups

dominate other groups.”
[37] This application allows Native Americans to describe colonialism and its
agents as wendigos since the process of colonialism ejected natives from their land and threw the natural

world out of balance. DeSanti points to the 1999 horror film
Ravenous as an illustration of this argument
equating “the cannibal monster” to “American colonialism and manifest destiny”. This movie features a

character who articulates that expansion brings displacement and destruction as side effects, explaining that

“manifest destiny” and “western expansion” will bring “thousands of gold-hungry Americans… over the

mountains in search of new lives… This country is seeking to be whole… Stretching out its arms… and

consuming all it can. And we merely follow”.
As a concept or metaphor

As a concept, wendigo can apply to situations other than some Native American-European relations. It can
serve as a metaphor explaining any pattern of domination by which groups subjugate and dominate or

violently destroy and displace. Joe Lockhard, English professor at Arizona State University, argues that

wendigos are agents of “social cannibalism” who know “no provincial or national borders; all human

cultures have been visited by shape-shifting wendigos. Their visitations speak to the inseparability of

human experience… National identity is irrelevant to this borderless horror.”
[39] Lockhard’s ideas explain
that wendigos are an expression of a dark aspect of human nature: the drive toward greed, consumption,

and disregard for other life in the pursuit of self-aggrandizement.

scholar and documentarian Emily Zarka, also a professor at Arizona State University, observes
that two commonalities among the indigenous cultures of
Algonquian language family speakers are that
they are situated in climes where harsh winters are frequent and may be accompanied by starvation.
states that the wendigo symbolically represents three major concepts: it is the incarnation of winter, the

embodiment of hunger, and the personification of selfishness.
Although distinct from how it appears in the traditional lore, one of the first appearances of a character

inspired by, or named after, a wendigo in non-Indigenous literature is
Algernon Blackwood‘s 1910 novella
The Wendigo
.[40][41] Joe Nazare wrote that Blackwood’s “subtly-demonizing rhetoric transforms the
Wendigo from a native myth into a
descriptive template for the Indian savage.”[42]
Blackwood’s work has influenced many of the subsequent portrayals in mainstream horror fiction,
such as
August Derleth‘s “The Thing that Walked on the Wind” and “Ithaqua” (1933 and 1941),[41] which
in turn inspired the character in
Stephen King‘s novel Pet Sematary,[42] where it is a personification of evil,
an ugly grinning creature with yellow-grey eyes, ears replaced by ram’s horns, white vapor coming from its

nostrils, and a pointed, decaying yellow tongue.
[43] These works set the template for later portrayals in
popular culture, at times even replacing the Native American lore.
[42] In an early short story by Thomas
, “Mortality and Mercy in Vienna” (first published in 1959), the plot centers around a character
developing Wendigo syndrome and going on a killing spree.

A character inspired by the wendigo
appears in American comic books published by Marvel Comics.
Created by the writer
Steve Englehart and artist Herb Trimpe, the monster is the result of a curse that afflicts
those who commit acts of cannibalism. It first appeared in
The Incredible Hulk #162 (April 1973), and
again in the October 1974 issue.
Without explicitly using the term, the 1995 novel
Solar Storms by Chickasaw author and poet Linda K.
both explored the mythology of the wendigo and used the creatures as a device to interrogate issues
of independence, spirituality, and politics, an individual’s relationship to the family, and as a metaphor for

corporate voracity, exploitation, and power
viewed as a form of cannibalism.[45]
Other creatures based on the legend, or named for it, appear in various films and television shows,

Dark Was the Night and Ravenous.[46] Television series include Teen Wolf, Supernatural,[47]
Blood Ties
,[48] Charmed,[49] Grimm,[50] and Hannibal, where an FBI profiler has recurring dreams or
visions of a wendigo that symbolizes the titular cannibalistic serial killer.
[51] A wendigo appears in My
Little Pony: Friendship Is Magic
“Hearth’s Warming Eve” under the pun title of “Windigo”, and in the
Christmas special, “Last Christmas!”, in which the creatures are described as “poor souls turned
into monsters by obsession and desperation.”
[52] A wendigo also appears in the 2020 horror film The
In popular culture

A person dressed as the
wendigo character from the

television series
Hannibal at
Fan Expo
The 2015 horror survival video game
Until Dawn by Supermassive Games
features wendigos as the main antagonists.
[56] Wrist, the 2016 debut novel
by Canadian horror fiction writer
Nathan Niigan Noodin Adler, was based
on the story of the wendigo.
The 2015 series
Summoner by Taran Matharu featured a type of demon
known as a Wendigo.
In the 2018 role-playing game
Fallout 76 by Bethesda Game Studios,
wendigos are featured as one of the cryptid enemies found in the area of

Appalachia; mutated from people who consumed human flesh in

In the 2018 first-person shooter video game
Dusk, wendigos are featured as
strong enemies that remain invisible to the player until they receive

[60] Several of these creatures also appear in the game’s cover
In the 2021 film
Antlers by Scott Cooper, Frank, Luca’s father, transforms
into a wendigo, which is portrayed as a deer-like creature with a glowing heart that moves from person to

person with a never ending hunger.
Guillermo del Toro, producer of the film, developed the wendigo on
the basis that the more the creature eats, the more it gets hungry and the more it gets hungry, the weaker it

In the 2022
Thai film Faces of Anne by the director and the co-writer Kongdej Jaturanrasamee, is about a
young woman named Anne who constantly changes her face every night. She suddenly wakes up in an

enclosed place like hospital. She finds that it’s not only herself that her name is Anne, but the other young

woman in the other rooms is Anne as well. Every night a deer-headed demon named Vedigo comes out to

kill them. It was adapted from Wendigo. The deer symbolizes both good and evil.
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Seeing Wetiko: on Capitalism, Mind Viruses, and Antidotes for a World in Transition
“Windigo: The Flesh-Eating Monster of Native American Legend”
o/windigo-the-flesh-eating-monster-of-native-american-legend-temrse/), Monstrum
documentary short
series from PBS Digital Studios
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