Teleportation – Has Star Trek Met Reality? – Audio and Text

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by Simon Harvey-Wilson

from GreyFalcon Website

Spanish version

Throughout history there have been reports from paranormal research, shamanism, mysticism and ufology, of people or objects that become invisible, materialized, dematerialized, or teleported.

Because of their similarity, understanding the dynamics of one of these phenomena may assist us in understanding the others. In other words, perhaps the ‘physics’, if that is the appropriate term, of becoming invisible may be similar to that of the materialization and dematerialization of solid objects, which in turn might be similar to that of teleportation.

Science fiction writers frequently toy with the notion of invisibility, and modern military researchers are also interested in the subject. Not that long ago soldiers used to march into battle dressed in splendidly colored uniforms which, unfortunately, made them excellent targets.

More recently they have instead started to wear camouflage in an attempt to blend in with their environment. Current research by the military seeks to make soldiers of the future even less visible by having them wear a special coat covered with miniature sensors that would transmit a picture of what was behind each soldier to a matrix of screen-like material on the front of the coat. This helps camouflage them by giving the impression that they are transparent.

However there is a subtle difference between being invisible and being transparent.

Western air forces have, in recent years, spent heavily on stealth technology, a form of radar invisibility for aircraft. Primarily by its shape, a stealth plane attempts to reduce its reflectivity to the microwave radiation used in radar to such a degree that an enemy is fooled into thinking it isn’t there.

Stealth aircraft normally try to make themselves less detectable in the visible part of the electro-magnetic spectrum by being painted black and only operating at night. The US Air Force is currently experimenting with various daylight stealth techniques such as applying an electromagnetic coating to the outside of aircraft that changes color to match their background. (Douglass & Sweetman)

However these methods cannot be completely effective unless the noise of the plane’s engines can also be masked, which might be achieved by some form of destructive interference.

Dr Richard Boylan (1997) claims that the US Department of Energy is working on “high-energy invisibility ‘cloaking’ technology”, however proof of this claim would obviously be hard to obtain.

Although some UFOs are detected by radar, this may only be when they want to be detected.

At other times they may use advanced stealth technology, because, apart from often flying completely silently, UFOs have sometimes disappeared without being seen to fly away. In these cases what we, and probably the US Air Force, would like to know is whether they were just making themselves transparent, or actually dematerializing and/or perhaps entering other dimensions.

In his book UFO Chronicles of the Soviet Union, veteran ufologist Jacques Vallee describes a UFO landing in a park in the Soviet city of Voronezh in full view of children playing soccer there, as well as about forty adults.

After the craft had landed, a very tall three-eyed being and a robotic entity emerged and started moving around. When a nearby boy cried out in fear, and other people started shouting, the beings and the UFO vanished on the spot.

As Vallee writes:

“Five minutes later the sphere and the three-eyed being appeared again, just as strangely as they had disappeared. The being now had at his side a tube about four feet in length. A sixteen-year-old boy was close to the scene.

The alien pointed his ‘rifle’ toward the teenager, and the boy instantly disappeared. The alien entered the sphere and the sphere flew away, gradually increasing its speed. At the same instant the vanished teenager reappeared.”

It would be interesting to know whether the boy was physically there, yet invisible, during this experience or whether he was somehow not there, in which case, where was he, how did he get back, and what did the experience feel like to him?

Additional questions would relate to the physics of the UFO’s invisibility, and the alien’s tube. Nevertheless, we can be sure that, while public science cannot at present explain this phenomenon, the military would be extremely interested in it, and there are probably numerous parents the world over who at times would love to own one of the alien’s invisible-making tubes.

A fascinating article in The Anomalist (1995) by Donna Higbee describes her research into what she terms ‘Involuntary Spontaneous Human Invisibility‘, a condition whereby otherwise normal, healthy people find that they have suddenly become invisible to those around them.

After placing an inquiry about the phenomenon on several Internet bulletin boards, she says “the letters began pouring in.” (p.156) Many people claimed to have had several of these experiences.

“Often it takes several such occurrences before they realize that they are truly invisible during certain times to other people. They attempt to interact with those around them and simply can’t be seen or heard.”

These people report instances of invisibility in places such as airports, libraries, clothing stores, restaurants, parties, and at home.

Luckily the effect seem to wear off spontaneously, otherwise we might never hear from them again. As invisibility is sometimes reported as a component of the UFO abduction phenomenon, Higbee at first thought that the people contacting her might all be abductees, but, as her data-base expanded, this appeared not to be the case. She does claim however that they seem to have higher than average psychic abilities.

Higbee also points out that Western occultism and Eastern yoga traditions refer to the possibility of making oneself invisible.

For example, in the Indian tradition, one of Patanjali‘s yoga-sutras states that after suitable training,

“the contact between the eye (of the observer) and light (from the body) is broken and the body becomes invisible.”

(Taimini, 1975)

This does not sound like dematerialization, and does not refer to the suspension of sound effects as in Higbee’s reports, but does seem to claim that there is a link between consciousness and this form of invisibility.

In the occult tradition, the ancients apparently believed that the gemstone heliotrope conferred invisibility, and also gave the power of divination. (Tondriau, 1972)

Heliotrope, otherwise known as bloodstone, is a dark green variety of the silica mineral chalcedony that is spotted with red nodules of jasper, which look like drops of blood. Heliotrope was therefore prized during the Middle Ages for its suitability in religious sculptures representing flagellation or martyrdom.

Chalcedony is a cryptocrystalline variety of quartz which can occur in several other forms such as agate, chrysoprase, carnelian, or onyx. Quartz, or natural crystalline silica, is the most common mineral in the Earth’s crust. Its chemical name is silicon dioxide, SiO2, a combination of the elements silicon and oxygen, which are respectively the seventh and third most common elements in our solar system.

Silica has a high melting point, is hard, and is used in the manufacture of glass and ceramics.

So why the variety of quartz called heliotrope might confer invisibility is somewhat of a puzzle. There is another version of the connection between the word heliotrope and invisibility. Heliotrope also refers to a light purple color, which derives it seems from one of the 250 plants of the genus Helitropium (the genus name originally referred to the plant’s ability to turn its flowers to the sun) from the family Boragaceae.

The best known of these, garden or Peruvian heliotrope (Heliotropum arborescens), has a fragrant five lobed purple flower. In this version, it is the heliotrope plant which confers invisibility and powers of divination.

A third version of this legend, which states that a magical ritual in which one covered the heliotrope stone with the heliotrope plant to produce invisibility, simply sounds like someone trying to have a bet each way.

In a possible connection to the purple color of heliotrope, it is noted that legends apparently claim that the grimoires, or books which contain the secrets of witchcraft, have pages of,

“violent purple and that the characters on the page are invisible to the profane.”

(Trondriau & Villenuve, 1972)

Exactly what sort of people are regarded as profane by practitioners of witchcraft is unclear.

Explanations for the invisibility of writing on purple pages are not given, but it is noted that purple is the last color of the visible spectrum before the frequency of electromagnetic radiation becomes too high to be detected by the human eye, and therefore becomes invisible. It may also be relevant that purple is the color traditionally reserved for royalty.

The connection between invisibility and consciousness seems the obvious place to look for further explanations. In his excellent book The Holographic Universe, science writer Michael Talbot describes an incident in which a man is hypnotized in a room full of people including his teenage daughter, and is given the post-hypnotic suggestion that, upon awakening, his daughter will be invisible to him.

When bought out of his trance, not only could he apparently not see the giggling girl standing in front of him, but, when the hypnotist stood behind her and held a watch against her back, he was able to read the inscription on it as if he was looking right through her body.

Talbot, who actually spoke to the man, was unable to explain the incident, but suggested that perhaps he was obtaining the information via telepathy.

In discussing what she calls ‘Virtual-Reality Scenarios’ Dr Karla Turner describes a UFO Close Encounter case where the experiencer, Amelia, claims to have been lying in bed at night when she heard a helicopter over the house. Looking up she discovered that she could see through the ceiling and roof as if they had disappeared, or become completely transparent.

This enabled her to see a strange looking craft above the house containing two entities who subsequently appeared at the foot of her bed.

The other person sleeping in the room had not heard the noise of the ‘helicopters’, nor seen the entities. While Amelia, who seemed enveloped in a ball of bluish light, spoke with these entities, two witnesses in the room found that, not only could they not communicate with her, but that they could hardly hear each other, even when they shouted.

English UFO researcher Jenny Randles (1990) has coined the term the ‘Oz Factor’ to describe a feature of some UFO cases in which the witnesses find themselves entering a strange dreamlike state where, among other things, everything around them goes silent.

This may apply to insect noises for example, or they may find they are unable to hear their car engine, or the noise of the tyres on the road. (Harpur,1994)

While an explanation for this may turn out to be quite simple, it is interesting to wonder what could cause people, who suddenly find themselves invisible, to be unable to make themselves heard as well, when there is no anomalous device, such as a UFO, in sight. Light and sound propagate at vastly different speeds.

Sound travels at about a thousand kilometers per hour, while the speed of light is about one billion kilometers per hour.

An article in New Scientist on something called ‘Electromagnetically Induced Transparency‘ (Buchanan, 1997), describes research being done in quantum optics in various universities whereby,

“opaque solids can be made transparent simply by shining laser light on them.”

Working originally with “low density clouds of gas”, and then moving on to “a piece of solid frozen hydrogen”, the researchers have found that the light from two carefully tuned laser beams can be made to interfere with each other in such a way that the light from one of lasers will cease to interact with the atoms in the material, and therefore be able to pass through that material unimpeded.

In other words, from that laser beam’s perspective the material has now become transparent. It is too early yet to conclude that this research may lead to an understanding of human invisibility.

As the article says:

“Any hope, for instance, that eyesores can be made to vanish with a few strategically placed colored lamps should be abandoned. Making a material transparent at all the many visible frequencies at which it can absorb light is probably impossible.”

Some reports on invisibility suggest that a few people can make themselves selectively invisible to others.

This sounds a bit like Michael Talbot’s hypnosis case without the hypnotist:

as if a person with this ability can affect someone else’s perceptual system using something like telepathic mind-control.

An example of this is the case of the Spanish monk Saint Vincent Ferrier (1350-1419) who was highly regarded at the court of Aragon because of his wisdom and supposed miraculous abilities.

The story goes that Queen Yolande once requested to see his living quarters, and when the monk refused permission, had the door forced, and entered with her attendants. There she discovered that, while everyone else in the room could see him quite clearly, the Queen could not see Ferrier at all.

When questioned about this invisibility, the monk explained that this was God’s punishment for the Queen’s intrusion, and her partial blindness would recover when she left, which apparently it did.

There are other similar reports of selective invisibility in the Middle Ages, all of which seem to relate to holy men, who may have gained this ability as a result of prolonged prayer or contemplation.

However it is not suggested that in these cases the person concerned had actually dematerialized.

Materialization and dematerialization are opposite sides of the same coin, and sometimes would be indistinguishable from invisibility. But, if someone simply disappears from a witness’ sight, later reappears, and could not be touched while invisible, we can assume that something other than an inhibition in the witness’ perceptual system has occurred.

In the annals of the paranormal there are probably more instances of things materializing than dematerializing. In séances for example, objects have frequently been known to appear, seemingly out of thin air.

Called apports, it is generally assumed that a disembodied spirit has either created them out of ‘nothing’, or teleported them from elsewhere.

There are too many of these instances to document here, but an example might be a fragrant rose, still covered in dew, that suddenly falls out of the air onto a seance table. If such an apport was somehow picked off someone’s rose bush by a spirit, one wonders what the owner of that bush might have seen if they were looking out the window at the time.

Would the rose suddenly become invisible, leaving behind a snapped-off stem, while the spirit ‘flew’ invisibly back to the seance to deposit the now visible rose on the table? If something like this is possible, then we certainly have a lot more to learn about the nature of reality, let alone invisibility.

Objects do not only materialize during séances, and when they do, it may be hard to tell if they were teleported from elsewhere or not.

The English healer Mathew Manning, who experienced a lot of poltergeist activity during his teenage years, gives several examples in his book The Link:

“I was collecting material for a Guy Fawkes fire at the bottom of our garden. Finding myself short of rubbish, except for half a dozen cardboard boxes, I went to the house and asked my mother what I could use. There was no one else at home and she had no idea or suggestion. I returned to the bottom of the garden, and to my utter amazement I found a stack of large logs and wood placed next to the cardboard boxes.

At that time there was nobody who could have done this, let alone in the short space of time I had been in the house. In all, there were several hundredweight of wood and logs… Other such apports included several gramophone records, a bag of sugar, a bank note, a pair of black lace gloves and postage stamps.”

In another incident, “a pint bottle of beer and an apple pie” appeared in his bag while he was on a train.

Manning also describes apports that seem to have come from somewhere else.

“A long-playing record of which I had a copy appeared one day in the house; it seemed to have come from another owner as it bore obvious marks of wear. There seemed no reason for this to materialize as I owned a copy of it already.”


Manning seems surprised when uninvited objects materialize around him, despite the occasional link between what he is doing or thinking and what later appears. On the other hand, the Indian spiritual leader Sathya Sai Baba is well known for deliberately materializing solid objects which he gives to visitors and devotees. (Haraldsson, 1987)

These are normally small trinkets, and, when questioned about this, Sai Baba insists that he does not teleport them from a jeweller’s shop elsewhere. (Karanjia, 1994, p.29)

This leaves us with the baffling question of how someone can produce matter from ‘nowhere’.

In the literature on shamanism there are instances where objects, or even living insects, are materialized.

In his book Gifts of Unknown Things, Lyall Watson describes an incident in the Amazon where he witnessed a local healer first remove an infected tooth from a patient, and then announce that he had to make the pain of the infected gum go away. To do this, he somehow materialized over a hundred black army ants which marched in an ordered column out of the patient’s mouth, down his arm and away into the grass at the edge of the clearing.

This caused great mirth among the watching natives because, as Watson later discovered, the local word for pain was the same as that for army ant.

As Watson put it:

“The healer had promised that the pain would leave, and so it did in the form of an elaborate and extraordinary pun. It walked out.”


The military too is interested in learning how to make things materialize.

In early 1997 scientist Dr Gary Wood, at the US Army Research Laboratory in Maryland, claimed that his team’s research into non-linear optics might in future enable the army to project three-dimensional holographic images of tanks, planes and soldiers onto a battlefield to confuse the enemy. As well as reducing casualties to real soldiers, such technology would be of great use in training battlefield commanders. (The West Australian, 13/5/1997)

UFO close encounter reports frequently describe aliens as ghostly or see-through in appearance. Perhaps this is because some of them are holographic projections coupled with some form of sophisticated artificial intelligence.

Teleportation refers to the invisible movement of an object, or person, from one place to another by an, as yet, unknown means. Teleportation frequently occurs during outbreaks of poltergeist activity.

Colin Wilson (1981, p.156) gives an example in which an egg, apparently from the kitchen refrigerator, floated in through the lounge room door of a poltergeist affected house, and dropped onto the floor. One of the house occupants then put all the refrigerator eggs into a box and sat on the lid. As if provoked by this defiance, eggs continued to smash all over the floor until the box was empty, despite its remaining closed throughout the event.

It has been traditional to regard poltergeist activity as the pranks of invisible spirits from other dimensions. More recently it has been suggested that the phenomenon may be linked to unresolved conflicts in the mind of a teenager living in such a house:

a form of unconscious psychokinesis working through hyperspace.

This theory makes several radical assumptions about the nature of consciousness: for example, that it can affect matter at a distance. Poltergeist-like events also occur after UFO abduction cases. (Cahill, 1996)

What this suggests is even more speculative. Just calling aliens space-age poltergeists does not help.

A more detailed suggestion is that some UFOs may be able to teleport through hyperspace, which is in turn somehow connected to consciousness, so that being pulled into this ‘realm’ affects abductees’ minds deeply enough to cause poltergeist activity around them afterwards.

Idries Shah, an expert on Sufism, which is the mystical branch of Islam, claims that the Qutub, the chief of the Sufi system, is always someone who has attained the degree of Wasl (Union with the Infinite).

Such men,

“are able to transport themselves anywhere instantaneously, in physical form, by a process of decorporealization.”

(Shah, 1973)

This sounds like teleportation, and reinforces the claim that such abilities are linked with altered states of consciousness.

The parapsychologist Dr. Scott Rogo (1991) points out that teleportation overlaps the phenomenon of bilocation, whereby a person is seen in two places at once. The Italian monk Padre Pio apparently appeared physically in two places simultaneously on several occasions. Rogo also quotes the 1951 case of the adolescent boy Cornelio Closa in Milan, Italy, who claimed that his repeated teleportation was the result of being touched by the apparition of a teenage girl all dressed in white.

He would reappear later, sometimes miles from home, even after being locked in his room by his parents. The disappearances stopped after he was exorcised by an American missionary.

John Michell gives an example of apparent teleportation in his book The Flying Saucer Vision.

On 25th October 1593, a Spanish soldier was arrested in the main square of Mexico City because he was unable to account for his presence there, and because he was wearing the uniform of a regiment that was at that time stationed in the Philippine Islands, nearly a year’s travel away by ship. The befuddled soldier nevertheless gave precise details of his life in Manila up to the moment he had found himself instantaneously and inexplicably transported to Mexico.

He was even able to tell his interrogators of the recent death of the Spanish governor of the Philippines; news that did not arrive in Mexico City for many months.

It is interesting to wonder what could have caused this event. Did the soldier possess unknown psychic abilities, was he unusually devout, or was he perhaps in the wrong place at the wrong time when some delinquent spirits or aliens decided to have some fun at his expense?

The parapsychologist Professor Erlendur Haraldsson (1987) quotes various witnesses who, with other devotees, in the late nineteen-forties, used to go for afternoon walks with the Indian religious leader Sathya Sai Baba towards the river in his home village of Puttaparti, in Southern India.

On several occasions Sai Baba would disappear from among the devotees and reappear at the top of a nearby hill. Sometimes he would then shout that he was coming down and would instantly reappear among the devotees. Later, in 1995, there were anecdotal reports that in full view of a group of Australian devotees, who had been granted an interview with him at his ashram at Whitefield on the outskirts of Bangalore, Sai Baba teleported an elderly man back to his home in Australia to be with his ailing wife.

His friends saw the man disappear from the interview room, and when, just after the interview, they went and phoned his home in Australia, it is claimed that it was he who answered the phone. If true, this report suggests that someone with powerful paranormal powers can teleport another person.

A brief article in New Dawn (July-Aug 1997) claims that a US Defense Intelligence Agency translation of an article in a 1983 Chinese journal described successful experiments on the teleportation of small objects such as fruit flies, a watch, a match and a nail using “extraordinary children” as test subjects.

The researchers concluded that:

“Transference is not a simple process of mechanical movement in three dimensional space.”


If such reports are true, we might suspect that the original Chinese article prompted the US military to sponsor similar research.

Dr Richard Boylan (1997) claims that researchers at the Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories in the US have conducted “successful teleportation experiments.”

Not surprisingly details do not seem to have been published in any science journals, so it is hard to know what to make of such claims.

How could something dematerialize and/or teleport from one place to another? A common explanation is that these objects enter other dimensions invisible to normal human perception. Unfortunately this is not a very satisfactory explanation because it simply replaces one mystery with another. Nevertheless, the possible existence of higher dimensions, otherwise known as hyperspace, is frequently mentioned by physicists these days.

The advantage of hyperspace is that, being beyond the three physical dimensions of space-time, it may facilitate shortcuts from one part of space-time to another.

Topologists, who study other dimensions from a mathematical perspective, point out that three dimensional physical barriers, such as the sides of a box, cease to be obstacles in higher dimensional space. In 1985 the US physicist Kip Thorne suggested that inter-dimensional shortcuts called ‘wormholes’ might one day facilitate space travel.

Astronomer Carl Sagan used this idea in his book Contact (which has now been made into a film), about human contact with extraterrestrials. However, physicists claim that to create a wormhole would require vast amounts of energy. It is even suggested that black holes are versions of such rips in the fabric of space-time. (Couper & Henbest, 1996)

On a much smaller, but no less dramatic, scale, perhaps consciousness itself is somehow able to create the equivalent of a wormhole to facilitate teleportation. If so, then perhaps an advanced extraterrestrial civilization has researched this aspect of the ‘physics’ of consciousness enough to use the results in the UFO and abduction phenomena.

In his book Hyperspace Michio Kaku describes how Superstring theory postulates that numerous other dimensions exist beneath the sub-atomic scale, and that electromagnetism and the other three fundamental forces in the universe are united in this realm.

Perhaps the matter produced from the energy of the Big Bang, and that produced by anyone that materializes objects, originates within hyperspace to which consciousness also has access. In fact, within hyperspace, matter, energy, the fabric of space-time, and consciousness itself, may derive from the same source.

Another explanation for teleportation is that the object concerned dematerializes, somehow travels to its destination, and then becomes solid again. In his book The Physics of Star Trek, the US physicist Lawrence Krauss discusses the scientific validity of the science fiction ideas in that popular TV series.

Krauss points out that, from a physicist’s perspective, to teleport a human body, as in ‘Beam me up Scottie’, requires several steps.

  • Firstly you have to record the exact configuration of all the atoms in the body, and to store that much information would require an astronomically tall heap of 10-gigabyte hard drives.

  • Secondly, you would need to somehow dematerialize the person, which he claims requires vast amounts of energy.

  • Thirdly, you transmit to the new location either the body’s sub-atomic particles, called quarks, or perhaps just the atomic information about them.

  • Finally, either with the original quarks or some new ones, you use the information about the person’s body to rematerialize it at the other end.

Krauss is wise enough to add the disclaimer that if humans have souls, as many people believe, his whole plan falls to pieces. Nevertheless, given these and several others obstacles, Krauss is of the opinion that science won’t be teleporting anyone anywhere for some time to come.

Let us deal with Krauss’ objections to teleportation first. Krauss says that the volume of atomic data about the human body is unmanageable. However, the mathematics of Fractal Geometry, apart from producing beautiful psychedelic patterns, enables redundant data to be removed from, for example, a high resolution spy satellite image, to facilitate its transmission back to earth, where, using the same mathematics in reverse, the image can be decompressed.

The final product is of high quality, and such techniques are rapidly increasing in sophistication.

Fractal Geometry can also produce patterns that are similar to many of those found in nature. As the human body is made of trillions of almost identical sub atomic particles, data compression would assist in transmitting such information. So Krauss’ information overload objection is probably irrelevant. Krauss claims that to vaporize the body into pure energy in preparation for teleportation would take the equivalent of a thousand 100-megaton bombs.

Yet paranormal reports of teleportation do not mention such energies.

We could suggest therefore that modern physics is investigating the nature of matter the hard way – from the outside. Paranormal evidence suggests that the subtlety of consciousness can affect matter from the ‘inside’ in a very energy efficient manner.

A simple example of this is paranormal spoon bending, where the mind seems able to affect the molecular structure of metal from within. At present we don’t know how this works, but we will never find out unless we do the relevant research. One place to look is the relationship between matter, energy, consciousness, and the domain in which they operate, called space-time, which is increasingly being seen by physicists and others, not as the emptiness in which things happen, but rather as a ‘substance’ that can expand, contract, bend or reverberate.

This suggests that space-time may have an ‘outside’ or ‘beyond’ (Matthews, 1997), which might just be an alternative description for hyperspace.

Attempts to grapple with a definition of this ‘beyond’ have referred to altered states of consciousness, other wavelengths, vibrations, or, more esoterically, some sort of transcendental consciousness or universal mind. I prefer to use a computing analogy and refer to this unknown ‘beyond’ as a ‘realm’ that seems to have astonishingly sophisticated, multi-dimensional, or nonlocal, informational processing abilities, and which can use space-time as a four dimensional ‘screen’ on, or in, which to display the results of such information processing.

Krauss’ suggestion, that in teleportation we may only need to transmit atomic information rather than atomic particles, echoes this idea; that information theory may provide the best model for the fundamental nature of reality. In other words, the basic units of matter, if such things exist, may be units of information rather than anything solid.

As an example of seeing beyond space-time, physicists claim that no-one needed to show the energy produced during the Big Bang how to coalesce into matter. Sub-atomic particles and atoms seemed to know how to assemble themselves, as if the rules of physics were already there.

If this is so, how was this information stored, and where did the energy of the Big Bang actually come from?

Some researchers speak of the energy of the vacuum, or Zero Point Energy, which suggests that ‘behind’ the fabric of space-time there may exist an almost infinite amount of energy.

For example:

“According to quantum theory, empty space is not as empty as it seems: if we could examine a vacuum at the ‘Plank scale’ – a resolution of 10-35 meters – we would see a seething mass of virtual particles, including photons, flitting in and out of existence.”

(Watson, 1996)

If the entire universe popped up from nowhere, it does seem rather churlish for physicists to claim that it is impossible for someone with powerful paranormal ability, such as Sai Baba, to produce an object containing less than one kilogram of matter from that same ‘nowhere’.

What we’d like to know is how he does it. Perhaps consciousness can somehow address the energy of the Plank scale, and persuade it to create permanent atomic particles rather than just virtual ones.

But how would these particles know what object to make?

To answer this we need to refer back to Krauss’ earlier disclaimer that, if humans have souls, his teleportation theories are probably wrong. However, the existence of souls might make teleportation easier to explain rather than harder. There is evidence from events such as Near-Death-Experiences that at least some humans do have invisible forms of consciousness that could perhaps be called souls.

It has also long been claimed that all living things have something resembling a subtle version of their genetic code that exists beyond the body. Plato referred to the Realm of Forms, and in modern times Rupert Sheldrake speaks of Morphic Fields.

He suggests that as things grow they obtain developmental information from both their genetic codes and Morphic Resonance. These two informational sources may even overlap, with one able to substitute for the other. A long these lines, a brief, poorly referenced article in Nexus (Kanzhen, 1995) claims that a Chinese scientist working in Russia has perfected a bio-electromagnetic field process whereby he can change the genetic structure of some plants and animals.

If true, such a discovery would be of enormous importance. This might mean that the information needed to reassemble the human body after teleportation is obtainable from an informational realm like Morphic Resonance.

Sheldrake has suggested that Morphic fields may transcend time and space, which might mean that, provided the body was disassembled correctly, the information to reassemble it would not need to be transmitted anywhere, but instead might be stored nonlocally and therefore be accessible from anywhere. After several landmark experiments, modern physics has accepted that nonlocality does exist at the sub-atomic level.

Otherwise known as the Holographic Paradigm, this research shows that within the quantum realm, something that occurs in region A can have an instantaneous physical effect in region B, regardless of the distance or conditions between A and B. (Talbot, 1991)

Further research in this field may yet lead to significant advances in our understanding of both the paranormal and the nature of consciousness.

For example, some years ago, Professor Roger Penrose (1989) at Oxford University put forward the controversial suggestion that consciousness may have something to do with the quantum realm.

Obviously more research is needed, but if he and other theorists in this subject are correct, then perhaps consciousness has the capacity to reach beyond the dimensional limitations of space-time, to an astonishingly creative nonlocal informational realm which holds something like the ‘blueprints’ for the structure of matter.

Once accessed, willpower alone may be able to ‘flesh out’, or ‘solidify’ such information to produce, within space-time, something that the inhabitants of that realm normally regard as ‘solid’.

These suggestions imply that scientists are going to have to take a harder look at the evidence for paranormal anomalies such as teleportation, materialization, invisibility, and the UFO phenomenon if they are ever going to discover the fundamental nature of reality that they claim to seek.


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Turner, Karla. (1994). Expanding the parameters of the alien-human abduction agenda. MUFON Symposium Proceedings.
‘US Army Plans Phoney War’. The West Australian. 13th May, 1997.
Vallee, J. (1992). UFO Chronicles of the Soviet Union.
Watson, Andrew. (4/5/96). ‘Flashes of light from the quantum world.’ New Scientist, No 2028, p.13.
Watson, Lyall. (1976). Gifts of Unknown Things.
Wilson, Colin. (1981). Poltergeist.

by Michael E. Salla, PhD
February 11, 2005

from Exopolitics Website


A special study commissioned by the US Air force on the viability of teleportation was recently released for public dissemination.


The “Teleportation Physics Study” was the result of a subcontracted study performed by a Nevada based company, Warp Drive Metrics, for the United States Air Force Research Laboratory based at Edward Air Force Base. The Study focused on different modes of teleportation and analyzed their viability for widespread military and civilian applications in communications and transportation.


The Study distinguished between different forms of teleportation. These modes included the classic Star Trek version, called sci-fi teleportation (‘sf-Teleportation’ ); teleportation of an objects ‘quantum state’ or ‘unique identity’, called ‘quantum -‘ or ‘q-Teleportation’; and a psychic form of teleportation called ‘p-Teleportation’.

While the Study mentions the classic sci-fi teleportation, this is done for illustrative purposes only and is not in itself examined in any detail.


The Study begin by focusing on quantum teleportation which it deemed to be successful in relocating the ‘quantum state’ of relatively small objects across spatial distances but did not succeed in replicating the original object which was destroyed in the process.


In particular the Study states:

“In q-Teleportation it is the quantum states of the objects that are destroyed and recreated, and not the objects themselves. Therefore, q-Teleportation cannot teleport animate or inanimate matter (or energy) in its physical entirety.

However, some experts argue that because an object’s quantum state is its defining characteristic, teleporting its quantum state is completely equivalent to teleporting the object, even though the original object’s quantum state (and defining characteristic) was completely destroyed in the process”

( p. 46).

What this suggests is that the ‘quantum state’ of an object at the place of origin can be relocated to another place and draw upon constituent physical matter to create a new physical object containing the relocated ‘quantum state‘ while the old object is destroyed in the process.


Basically, the new object at the destination has the ‘quantum state’ or essence of the ‘original object’ but is reconstituted with a new set of atoms, molecules, etc.


Q-Teleportation has been successful on smaller objects according to the Study:

“Given the incredible advancements that have been made in the entanglement and teleportation of macroscopic objects the size of 1012 atoms, we are still very far away from being able to entangle and teleport human beings (and even simpler biological entities such as cells, etc.) and bulk inanimate objects”

(p. 46)

The Study is here suggesting that q-Teleportation is a viable process that with further study and technological improvement may ultimately succeed in teleporting larger objects and eventually even humans.


Significantly, the Study also suggested that q-Teleportation is a phenomenon that naturally occurs in nature:

“It turns out that there does in fact exist a form of teleportation that occurs in nature despite the numerous technical roadblocks described in the previous section. It is called quantum teleportation, which is based on the well-known concept of quantum entanglement”

(p. 32).

The most surprising part of the Study comes when it examines the phenomenon of psychic or p-Teleportation which is defined as,

  • “the conveyance of persons or inanimate objects by psychic means”

    (p. 2).

  • The Study reveals that p-Teleportation “has been scientifically investigated and separately documented by the Department of Defense”

    (p. 1).

  • The Study concludes that there “is a wealth of factual scientific research data from around the world attesting to the physical reality of p-Teleportation…”

    (p. 59)

In short, psychic teleportation whereby individuals can move objects through space by teleportation is real and is actively being studies by elite research institutions of a number of countries.


This is the most significant aspect of the Study since it concludes that a phenomenon that is performed only partially by present technological means, is done by psychic means far much more successfully and extensively than commonly understood.

In conclusion, the Study affirms the viability of different modes of teleportation and not surprisingly advocates further research and technological innovations for exploring the civilian and military applications of teleportation. The Study itself is very thorough and details the seriousness with which this research has been pursued in the military and civilian sector.


The Study presents for the general public and the scientific community a bold new vision of what the future might hold if different teleportation technologies are developed and put into practice in the communications and transportation sectors.


For the science fiction community, it brings back the core ideas of sf-Teleportation popularized in the original Star Trek series. A question that can be raised is whether the Study is only the tip of the iceberg in terms of classified research on teleportation technologies, and whether such technologies have indeed already been developed, ‘discovered’ and/or put into application?


This is where the Study’s exopolitical implications can be explored.


Exopolitical Implications of the Teleportation Physics Study

As a ‘Special Study‘ approved for release by the US Air force, it may be assumed that the Teleportation Physics Study disseminates information not deemed to be so sensitive that it poses a significant threat to the national security of the US.


This is surprising given the Study’s conclusion that p-Teleportation has been widely demonstrated to be real and actively under study in other countries.


The implication that may be drawn here is that classified information on the viability of the different modes of teleportation far exceeds the literature used by the Study in reaching its conclusions. There is very likely a detailed understanding of the capabilities and applications of these teleportation modes which makes it possible to release the Study without it posing a security threat to the US. This is likely due to the advanced nature of classified research and development of different modes of teleportation.


Consequently, the information on teleportation released in the Study is very likely only the proverbial tip of the iceberg in what is currently known about teleportation in classified projects. The question to be pursued here is whether some of the modes of teleportation described in the Study have already been secretly developed and put into application in various classified projects. More significantly, the Study leads plausibility to claims that teleportation technologies have been discovered in a number of locations around the planet.

A number of alleged whistleblowers claim to have witnessed classified projects that utilize some of the teleportation modes described in the Study. For example, Dr Dan Burisch claims to have witnessed teleportation technologies which he described as ‘ wormhole’ or ‘stargate‘.


Burisch says these as are both ‘artificial’ and also ‘natural’ stargates where presumably q-Teleportation was employed. Burisch also described the ability of an advanced life form that was able to use p-Teleportation in an area Burisch described as a Natural Stargate at Frenchman’s mountain in Nevada.


Burisch further claimed that one of the reasons for the US military intervention in Iraq was to gain access to the stargates in Iraq.

Another alleged whistleblower, Dr Michael Wolf, also claims to have knowledge of teleportation technologies discovered by national security agencies. He claims that a stargate exists at the Gizeh Pyramid, Egypt, and was created by extraterrestrials (


In a February 2003 study, I cite evidence of stargate technology in Iraq as a primary motivation for the US intervention in Iraq, and argue that the control and application of such technologies are a powerful political factor in global affairs.

The exopolitical implications of the Study are very significant since it lends greater plausibility to claims that teleportation or stargate technologies have been discovered and/or developed around the planet.


It can be concluded that as the Study is more disseminated and understood by the scientific and lay communities, the exopolitical implications of the Study will be better appreciated; and the role of extraterrestrials in creating, disseminating and using different modes of teleportation will be better understood.



Excerpt from an Article by Michael E. Salla, PhD

from OpenSETI Website





The scientific and engineering building blocks that form SETI’s intellectual foundation and technology consist of:

  • Newtonian physics

  • Darwinian evolution

  • Maxwellian electromagnetic theory

  • classical radio technologies developed in the 1940s and 1950s

  • the Oparin-Haldane hypothesis of the synthesis of life from prebiotic soup and lightning (1950s)

  • the Fourier transform and Fast Fourier Transform algorithms first used on computers of the 1960s and 1970s

  • very-large-scale integrated circuits of the 1980s

  • parallel processing (1980s)

  • distributed computing over today’s Internet, as in SETI@Home

Thus the SETI paradigm is a kind of Frankenstein’s monster of old body parts collected from the last two centuries that somehow walks and talks but cannot align with the world in which it now finds itself.

Recently, SETI has attempted to get more in synch with current issues in astrobiology, and now considers that life – even DNA-based life due to Panspermia mechanisms – may be much more pervasive than originally thought. But if life is more widespread than SETI thought, so might be intelligent life and technological societies. This possibility is rarely acknowledged in the halls and annals of SETI.

Nor does SETI reflect the implications of post-Newtonian (i.e., twentieth-century) physics for the prospect that we and other societies could achieve interstellar travel – even now that we have entered the twenty-first century and society’s horizon of the possible is rapidly expanding.

Why does SETI hold so to its rigid paradigm? Perhaps because it cannot face the prospect of changes that could undermine the very reason for its existence.


The Plan for this Page

Open SETI Physics 101 reviews elements of physics that have received widespread attention if not full acceptance, but that appear so far to have been ignored by SETI. But beyond that, new formulations of physics itself are on the horizon. These hold promise of completely replacing today’s ideas of the nature of reality.

Two such new formulations are introduced on this page, with links to resources that fully explain them. The physics of Don Hotson is discussed under the heading Zero-Point Energy, Part 2 (below).


A discussion of Subquantum Kinetics (far below), an important new physics developed by Paul A. LaViolette, appears at the end of this page. Each of these proposals contains many considerations that would require revising not only Open SETI Physics 101, but much of Open SETI, let alone SETI, and widespread areas of science and technology as well.


However, for the moment, the two bodies of ideas remain somewhat encapsulated until better understanding has been gained of their implications vis a vis each other and the Open SETI paradigm.

That said, let us now look at some areas of more mainstream physics that will have implications for SETI.


Extra Dimensions

Dimensionality beyond our familiar 4-D spacetime has long been a staple of science fiction, the dream of science “buffs”, and the framework for “the other side” where people go after death, shamans travel, the soul resides, and UFOs fly when we can’t see them.

Not that the idea of extra dimensions is without support from mathematics and physics. The mathematical basis is certainly there, and modern superstring theories require 10 spatial dimensions. In these theories, all the matter and forces that we know of, with the exception of gravity, are constrained from moving into the extra dimensions, or from them into our own spacetime.


That is why we cannot see them.

But could we at least see gravitational effects leaking across from other dimensions? It is possible that we DO see them! Gravitation from matter in the extra dimensions could explain the mystery of the “dark matter” that seems to make up 90% of the mass of the universe.

To move these speculations into the realm of experiment, physicists would like to examine the structure of gravitational forces and/or observe the quantum behavior of the strings that have their basis in the extra dimensions. Until recently, however, their problem has been that the extra dimensions were thought to be “curled” into tiny circles too small to be observed.


(If “curled dimensions” are hard to imagine, consider that our own spacetime has often been considered to be “curved” by gravitation – closed so as to encompass a limited size to its geometry. The extra dimensions were conceived to be closed in the same manner.)


The small size would mean that the structure of gravitational forces is far too small for our experimental devices to work with, and that particles corresponding to that size would be far more energetic than any we could create with existing or planned colliders.

But in new theories gaining support today, the extra dimensions are wrapped into circles as large as a millimeter in radius. That seems small but it is actually large enough to come within range of, for example, the Large Hadron Collider that will become fully operational in 2008. Tabletop gravity experiments are now underway.

The small size of the extra dimensions in no way limits the extent of the spacetimes that would connect to any of them.


At any given coordinate along one of the dimensions, an entire 4-dimensional spacetime could exist, as well as parallel universes with dimensional systems utterly unlike our own. In one scenario, they would have properties identical to those of our own world. Or they could even BE our own world, folded back at some point practically unreachable from here, yet only a millimeter away in higher-dimensional space.

The implications for SETI of these intriguing new geometries are obvious. SETI scientists ought to watch these developments closely, because they suggest new possibilities for travel and communications.22


Zero-Point Energy, Part 1

SETI scientists frequently cite the enormous amounts of energy that would be required to accelerate a space vehicle to near-light speeds.


Figures are often quoted in terms of years of total U.S. energy output, as though to demonstrate the practical impossibility of interstellar space flight.

Yet for at least as long as SETI scientists have been invoking the scarcity of energy, physicists have accepted the concept of zero-point” energy (ZPE) (also known as “vacuum fluctuations”). This refers to enormous amounts of energy associated with the minimum quantum state of atoms at absolute zero temperature.


The average energy is E = hn/2, where h is a constant from quantum theory, known as Planck’s constant; n refers to frequency.

Can this energy can be tapped? The possibility is under intense investigation.

Rather than attempt to review this subject here, I direct the reader to a review and tutorial Understanding Zero Point Energy by Tom Vallone, Integrity Research Institute.


Also see Puthoff (Puthoff, H.E., 1998, Can the Vacuum be Engineered for Spaceflight Applications? Overview of Theory and Experiments. Jour. Sci. Exploration 12: 295-302.


Originally presented at the NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop, NASA Lewis Research Center, Cleveland, OH, August 12-14, 1997) on laboratory investigations of experimental formats for tapping the ZPE for practical use.


Zero-Point Energy, Part 2

That was the conventional approach to ZPE.


The subject is cast quite differently by Hotson (2002), who takes us back to 1934, when the physics community was having difficulty understanding the physical meaning of P.A.M. Dirac’s (1928) relativistic generalization of the Schrödinger wave equation.


The equation gave four solutions instead of the expected two, seemingly calling for electrons and positrons of positive energy, and electrons and positrons of negative energy – whatever that might be. Through lines of reasoning retraced by Hotson, physicists concluded that the equation would require the existence of a “sea” of negative energy electron-positron pairs (epos), and they then did away with the troublesome negative energy sea by means of dubious rationalizations.


This resulted in a description of a universe that more or less matches the one we live in, but one that must contain behaviors that we normally don’t see, such as the vacuum fluctuations.

Hotson explores the results of retaining the full set of solutions to Dirac’s equation.


As he explains, there should be no problem in understanding the meaning of the negative-energy epos, given that their vibration is assigned an imaginary direction (i.e., orthogonal with respect to our four).


He shows in Part 2 (2002) that the “sea” resembles a vast Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC), and the total solution predicts and explains numerous properties of our observed reality that have been considered anomalous in the present description.

In a March 16, 2005 letter, Hotson points to recent developments supporting his BEC theory:

“You will recall that the Dirac ‘cosmology’ depends on a single premise: that the Dirac equation mandates that the ‘vacuum’ actually be a Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) consisting of condensed epos, which form the sole ‘building blocks’ of the universe.

“Some new evidence has emerged that demonstrates exactly that. Dr. Benni Reznik of Tel Aviv University has published a series of papers showing that the ‘vacuum’ itself is entangled, that points arbitrarily far apart in the ‘vacuum’ violate Bell’s Inequality, and that two unentangled probes, launched into the ‘vacuum’, rapidly become entangled themselves. He says that the ‘vacuum’ actually operates as if it were a BEC.”

Reznik’s research will be reviewed by Open SETI at a future date. Meanwhile, an abstract with links to his papers on quantum entanglement may be viewed here.

Hotson points out that the negative BEC would interact with plasmas to create behaviors that have been observed but not up to now understood. And in effect, these behaviors represent a drawing out of energy from the negative BEC. In other words, ZPE is being extracted from the sea, and it happens all the time in macroscopic systems that we can observe, such as in the Sun and the large gaseous planets of our solar system.


Astonishingly, Hotson explains with numerical solutions the “resonances” between planetary bodies long observed and never really understood by planetary astronomers. These effects are the result of perturbations of the BEC’s wave function on the scale of the solar system.

And finally, this is important for Open SETI, because the planetary processes once understood could be copied and employed by space hardware for propulsion and many other applications.



Interstellar Travel at Subluminal Speeds

Candidate Propulsion Systems for Interstellar Travel


SETI’s dour outlook on the prospects for interstellar travel has apparently not discouraged the aerospace community from actively beginning to outline engineering requirements and develop the concepts for propulsion and other enabling technologies.


To demonstrate this fact, I had a link on this page to an excellent review of “Advanced Propulsion Concepts” – mission requirements and propulsion options – on a JPL page entitled “INTERSTELLAR MISSIONS“. Unfortunately JPL now blocks public access to this information and to the image that used to appear in the space above.

One propulsion method proposed for interstellar missions is that of the laser light-sail, employing a solar-system-based laser, a very large fresnel-zone lens, and a very large light-sail on the spacecraft.


Robert Forward (1984) describes a technique for achieving a round trip by deploying a backward-reflecting ring-shaped sail beyond the destination star for deceleration and the push for the return. The outbound leg to a Centauri would take 41 years.

These are but a few of the plausible proposals for interstellar travel. Readers interested in pursuing this subject further could begin with The Starflight Handbook (Mallove and Mattloff, 1989), covering propulsion and many other topics relating to non-relativistic flight to the stars.


Antigravity and Travel at Superluminal Speeds

“Advanced Propulsion” seeks to achieve speeds up to about 0.1 c – one tenth the speed of light which was for most of the last century considered an absolute limit on the motion of macroscopic objects.


But the speed of light no longer has that unassailable status. In fact, a technology to support faster-than-light travel has been proposed by Mexican physicist Alcubierre (1994).


It would be accomplished by distorting the local space-time metric in the region of a spaceship so as to achieve motion faster than the speed of light as seen by observers outside the disturbed region.


Hal Puthoff (1996,1997,1998,2002) elaborates on the proposal with a discussion of metric engineering, whereby the speed of light in free space c is changed by modifying the magnetic permeability and dielectric permittivity of the vacuum.

Another example of manipulating the spacetime fabric for purposes of travel was described by Eric W. Davis in Wormhole Induction Propulsion (WHIP). The technique involves the generation of ultra-high B fields through the use of chemical or nuclear explosive technologies. According to Davis, laboratory experiments that can be performed now have excellent potential of demonstrating the spacetime distortion required for this type of breakthrough propulsion.

Continuing his studies of wormhole production via spacetime metric engineering, Davis in a 2001 report, Wormhole-Stargates – Tunneling Through The Cosmic Neighborhood, examined the morphology of traversable wormholes consistent with the General Theory of Relativity (GTR), including “time machines” with which he claimed GTR is “infested”, and noted that many reported behaviors of UFOs are fully consistent with the use of such wormholes.

This work is updated by Davis in his Teleportation Physics Study (2004) report to the Air Force Research Laboratory.


An extract of an article by Dr. Michael E. Salla exploring the “exopolitical implications” of the report can be found in the sidebar at the right. Open SETI is (Feb 2005) studying the report for its many apparent relevancies to the Open SETI theme.


When complete, the results of this review will appear here. See also time travel.

The possibility of manipulating gravity and altering mass (of spaceships, say) as a means of reducing energy requirements for space travel had been discussed in the open scientific literature for many years.


For example, as early as 1963, Robert L. Forward showed how Einstein’s equations of general relativity predict that a moving mass can create non-Newtonian gravitational forces on a test body. Forward demonstrated how a massive rotating ring generates forces similar to the familiar centrifugal and Coriolis forces.

In order to make practical use of these forces, very high masses or densities would be required, as well as relativistic equatorial velocities. Limitations in mechanical strength of materials could be overcome by employing electric or magnetic fields to contain the inertial forces. Forward proposed that manipulation of gravitation by such means could lead to ways to accelerate space vehicles to nearly the speed of light.

It should be pointed out that Forward’s discussion was published forty years ago in the open scientific literature.


Presumably work in this area has continued. See, for example, a recent investigation by the Advanced Concepts Office of the Propulsion Directorate of the Phillips Laboratory at Edwards Air Force Base (Forward, 1996).



NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project


In 1997 NASA held a Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop to identify “affordable, near-term, and credible research that could make measurable progress” toward the achievement of breakthroughs leading to practical interstellar transportation.



Artist’s depiction of a hypothetical Wormhole Induction Propelled Spacecraft,

based loosely on the 1994 “warp drive” paper of Miguel Alcubierre.

Credit: NASA CD-98-76634 by Les Bossinas.

Topics discussed included coupling of gravity and electromagnetism, vacuum fluctuation energy, warp drives and wormholes, and superluminal quantum tunneling. See also NASA’s Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Project.

As a final example of a breakthrough propulsion proposal, see the patent by James Woodward: Method for transiently altering the mass of objects to facilitate their transport or change their stationary apparent weights.


Woodward describes a tabletop experiment designed to reveal mass fluctuations in Mach’s Principle, Mass Fluctuations, And Rapid Spacetime Transport.


Superluminal Travel in a World without Einstein

Many readers will be shocked at the idea that Einstein’s view of relativity was utterly wrong and that the edifice of today’s science based on that view will soon fall.


Yet a little research reveals that Einstein’s “thought experiments” have never been supported by real-world experimental data, and that they lead to unresolvable paradoxes, the hallmark of a failed theory.

This proposition cannot be adequately discussed on the present web page, and by me. But I can present a few highlights from an excellent survey of the situation, presented by William Cantrell (2001) in Issue No. 38 of Infinite Energy, a special issue on the topic “Einstein Reconsidered”. (Note: I assume the reader is familiar with the terminology mentioned in these points. Terms are explained in the paper.)

Key points include:

  1. Einstein, in connection with his Special Theory of Relativity (SRT), did not independently derive the Lorentz transformation that thoroughly intertwined space and time. Rather, he tentatively selected that transformation as an ad hoc approach to solving problems presented by the Maxwell Equations.

  2. There was trouble with this use of the Lorentz transformation almost from the very beginning. For example, the transformation relates to a translation that is applied only along one coordinate axis. But in the more general case of two linear, non-aligned translations, the calculation of the transformation breaks down; the results are dependent on the order in which the two translations are applied. This is a paradox, an absurdity.

  3. The famous “twin paradox” associated with SRT has never been resolved, particularly not by the argument that the acceleration of one of the twins breaks the symmetry. The reason is very clearly shown in the paper.

  4. There is a host of other paradoxes associated with the Lorentz transformation. These are mentioned in the paper. And there are other solutions to the original problems with Maxwell’s equations that avoid these paradoxes

  5. The behavior of particle clocks is not as predicted by SRT.

  6. If SRT fails, the speed of light in a vacuum is not a constant and is not a barrier. In fact, velocities in excess of 10c have been observed by astronomers. Furthermore, gravity appears to act instantaneously over distance, and NASA assumes this in its calculations.

The final point above bears directly on the possibilities for high-speed space travel. It suggests that there is no fundamental limit on possible speeds.

General relativity presents its own problems. I have not yet discussed these, but will include such a discussion later as time permits.



No discussion of the impact of current theories in physics on the possibilities for SETI would be complete without a recognition that various concepts of nonlocality arose in the last century, and experiments verified that under certain circumstances (“entanglement”), faster-than-light interaction seems to take place between physically separated particles – in violation of Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity.


Two very clear reviews and explanations of this development are given by Gary Felder in his article Spooky Action at a Distance (Einstein’s term) and David M. Harrison in Bell’s Theorem.

More recent experiments are beginning to suggest that this “entanglement” effect can have real, macroscopic applications–in other words, that superluminal communication might be supported.


But vastly broader implications have been drawn.


Matti Pitkänen in TGD inspired theory of consciousness and biosystems as macroscopic quantum systems and subsequent articles all in The Journal of Non-Locality and Remote Mental Interactions (JNLRMI) Volume I, Number 1, develops a view of biosystems as macrocosmic quantum systems existing in a many-sheeted spacetime.

JNLRMI appears on the website, a forum created by Dr. Lian Sidorov, already containing many articles and other contributions that bear heavily on SETI’s theoretical underpinnings.

A technology based on nonlocality would be an obvious candidate for supporting Telepresence. (Quantum entanglement may be vastly more “far-reaching” than we had supposed.


For a review of important recent developments in our understanding of quantum entanglement see the New Scientist article Entanglement: The weirdest link.)

Time Travel

A discussion of time travel may be accessed


Black Special Access Programs

The purpose of this page is to demonstrate how badly the SETI program has misstated the possibilities for long-distance space travel, which is crucially important to the development of the SETI paradigm.


The list of topics obviously does not constitute more than the briefest glimpse of present or contemplated state of the art, but it should suffice to illustrate the problem.

The case would be even more strongly made, however, if some note could be taken of “exotic” technologies that have been proven and have achieved operational status, though they may not be discussed in the scientific literature – perhaps not even as distant possibilities. For now, such technologies are highly classified and protected under the rubric of Black Special Access Programs (“Black Projects” or “Black Programs”).


Many who have worked in such areas have affirmed seeing things that are far in advance of anything dreamed of in the unclassified world.

But what are these things and how can one approach knowledge of them without actually entering that domain, and how then can they be spoken of in the unclassified literature?

One person who has tried to solve that problem is Nick Cook, former aviation editor of Jane’s Defence Weekly. Handed a photocopy of an article about antigravity development from some old popular magazine, Cook did a cursory check and found that there WAS a spate of stories on the subject in the early 1950s, but all talk of antigravity suddenly stopped in 1957.

Not really expecting to turn up anything more, Cook followed up what few leads he had, working on his own time.


Early on in his research, he encountered reports of the work of American physicist Thomas Townsend Brown (1929), who, as a student under the guidance of physicist and astronomer Paul Alfred Biefeld, had discovered that a plate-like object charged positively on one side and negatively on the other would exhibit thrust in the direction of the positive pole. This odd effect, which came to be known as the Biefeld-Brown effect, had no explanation in conventional physics, yet there it was.

Brown’s experiments with “electrogravitation”, as he called it, continued under mirky circumstances — likely under cover of classification, yet official military pronouncements stated that the propulsive effect was merely the result of the air currents or ion currents generated by Brown’s apparatus. Brown himself claimed to have properly addressed and disposed of that possibility.


At any rate, in 1952, the Pentagon declassified and released a document describing Project Winterhaven, a proposal to develop an operational flight system utilising the Brown effect.

Nick Cook, following lead after lead, eventually traced the antigravity story to roots deep in the underground slave factories of the Third Reich, and had surprisingly revealing interviews with past and present research directors of the most advanced aerospace development facilities in the U.S.

As he reports in his recent book, The Hunt for Zero Point (2001), there is good reason to believe that Germany had made significant progress in anti-gravity technology, and that their work was transplanted to the United States and the USSR after the war.

Now how were the Germans, coming out of a deflationary depression, and now under the stress of war, able to achieve any measure of success with a technology so advanced as to appear little more than a science fiction myth to most of us some sixty years later?


In my opinion it was because of their willingness to support radical departures such as the visions and ideas of the Austrian “forester” Viktor Schauberger.



Viktor Schauberger



Schauberger developed his unusual theories, which he turned into working machines, from observing fluid dynamics in streams and rivers, watching how fish swim, etc.


He felt that he was seeing the manifestation of energy from these motions that was not originally there. He seems to have been correct.

By departing from the usual method of the development of scientific ideas, Schauberger seems to have come across something that had been totally missed. The phenomenon was real, but the basis of it was unknown – probably to Schauberger himself as well as his peers and definitely to his SS overseers. But he was taken seriously, not only by the Germans, but by the Americans, who brought him over after the war and essentially stripped him of all his work.

More about The Hunt for Zero Point.

Is antigravity an operational military technology? Australian aerospace engineer Malcolm Street suggests some versions of the Joint Strike Fighter have it. His article, Anti-gravity and us, is controversial but provocative, and contains valuable links (including pages of links) for further study.

And Dr. Paul A. LaViolette, using his principles of Subquantum Kinetics, described in the next section, shows how the B-2 Stealth Bomber may well employ electrogravitics as its primary means of propulsion and perhaps directly for lift.



Subquantum Kinetics

“Subquantum Kinetics is a serious scientific study which examines the problem of the interaction of solid bodies and electromagnetic fields with the physical vacuum, taking into consideration an extremely large portion of the theoretical and experimental knowledge of modern physics….

“There are grounds to recommend this monograph as a compulsory textbook for students of the physical sciences because without knowledge of the main aspects of subquantum kinetics, modern physics will not adequately develop as a science and also because the detailed understanding of physical phenomena and their complex interrelations is a basic requirement for every expert in the field of physics.”
– from a review by Evgeny Podkletnov
Russian scientist noted for work on anti-gravity
Infinite Energy Issue 54, 2004

The fundamental recognition upon which Dr. Paul A. LaViolette bases his highly promising Theory of Subquantum Kinetics (SQK) is that general systems theory, which describes a common set of dynamic interactions found in biological and social systems of every level of complexity, might well be applicable to the world of subatomic particles and whatever substrate may lie beyond the quantum level.

LaViolette’s approach is to adopt a widely-studied set of three-variable dynamic equations describing an archetypal kinetic system known as Model G, an extension of the two-variable Brusselator, postulating that the same dynamics operate on the subquantum level to generate the physical world that we can observe, and to test his hypothesis by looking for conformity of the resulting physics with what is accepted to be true, and to predict the outcome of future observations and experiments.

In LaViolette’s SQK model, the universe is an open system at all levels, and our physical universe commonly exchanges energy across the “quantum barrier” under certain well-defined circumstances.


This is a profoundly non-conservative model (i.e., energy is not conserved and the second law of thermodynamics does not apply) with major implications for everything from microphysics to cosmology.

But what is the system beyond the quantum barrier (i.e., the system out of which particles, fields, forces, charge, gravitation, all arise to create the world described by physicists)? What is it that would have the dynamic processes defined by the Model G equations?


LaViolette proposes the existence of a primordial transmuting ether composed of populations of subtle particles that he calls etherons exhibiting reaction and diffusion dynamics governed by the Model G equations. Concentrations of these etheron populations or substrates are identified with the potential fields of physics. Wave-like field gradients form observable quantum-level structures such as energy waves and subatomic particles with mass, charge, spin, and force field effects.


From this simple basis, and some fine-tuning of the model’s parameters, LaViolette proceeds to – apparently very successfully – crank out our familiar world.

Because it begins with a single model as its point of departure for describing essentially all observable physical phenomena, SQK can be considered a unified theory.

Can it truly be so? Can this approach work? In lesser hands, probably not.


But with great competence and a sure knowledge of the philosophy, history, and the classical and current issues of physics, wonders unfold in succession. In his seminal Subquantum Kinetics (2003) we are shown the structure of subatomic particles and how they are created, the basis of photon behavior, the internal electric potential field profile of the proton, the nature of electrostatic charge and of gravity, solutions to persistent problems in quantum mechanics… and this is only the microphysical level.


SQK has tremendous importance in cosmology leading to a new view of the cosmos.


Relevance of New Physics

Are SQK and Hotson’s physics relevant to SETI and Open SETI?


Of course they are, if SETI has anything to do with physics at all. The incorporation of new physics into the Open SETI paradigm will be an important thrust in the development of this field.


For the moment, however, we leave you with a teasing hint or two of what is to come:

  • Generating negative gravitational fields (SQK)

  • Superluminal Non-Hertzian waves (SQK)

  • The physical basis of time anomalies (Hotson, articles listed on Open SETI home page)



SQK and Gravitation

In SQK, gravitation is not a result of a warping of the space-time continuum – which, in fact, SQK claims does not occur.


Instead, the gravitational potential fields, as are other energy potential fields surrounding subatomic particles, are generated by surpluses or deficits in the production of etherons (G-ons in the case of gravitational potentials) at the particles’ centers with respect to the production rate in their surroundings.


These surpluses or deficits, which LaViolette identifies as active gravitational mass, are predicted by the kinetic equations governing the SQK processes associated with the particles.

SQK predicts that gravitational potential fields plateau to a finite value at the center of subatomic particles, unlike the 1/r2 singularity of classical physics. There is also a 1/r4 “genic” energy radiation pressure. Each of these effects eliminates the possibility of gravitational collapse to a black hole under any circumstances. In other words, there are no black holes in SQK-based cosmology and astrophysics.

In a short two-page development, LaViolette finds that gravitationally interacting matter particles would have a mutual attraction, while antimatter particles would be mutually repulsive. More precisely, positively-charged particles generate a gravity potential well, while negatively-charged particles actually generate a gravity potential hill.


In neutral matter, the effect of the positive particles dominates, hence we see the familiar gravitational attraction of matter.


However, in the case of antimatter, with positrons (positively charged) and antiprotons (negatively charged), antiprotons dominate gravitationally, and the net gravitational effect is one of repulsion, suggesting that antimatter stars and galaxies would be unable to form. In the case of matter-antimatter gravitational interaction, the antimatter particle would continually chase the material particle.

When a source mass is in motion, its gravitational force field would contain some curl. In other words, gravitodynamic forces similar to electromagnetic forces, only much weaker, are predicted by SQK.


Gravity experiments have demonstrated the production of Hertzian-like gravity waves by a revolving mass, which would be consistent with this prediction.




Nikola Tesla‘s scalar wave technology has been suppressed and all but forgotten, but for legends that will not die. But the social pathology of our human society may not be universal.


Why would other civilizations not enjoy this technology?



It is known that “Tesla waves” were generated by sending very short, very-high-voltage spikes into spherical monopolar radiators. The resulting Non-Hertzian or scalar waves are fully described in Paul LaViolette‘s Subquantum Kinetics.


Being longitudinal waves, they do not excite currents in ordinary antennas, and thus cannot be detected by ordinary receiving systems such as the kind employed by SETI. While their very existence is officially denied, detection by quite simple receivers has been demonstrated. Furthermore, they can easily be collimated, making them ideal for long-haul communications, possibly over interstellar distances.

Can you think of any reason why the public would not be told of a communications technology employing signals that are undetectable by ordinary receivers?

Search the SETI literature for mention of scalar waves and you will find nothing.


This is but another indication that SETI is not serious about its work, preferring to adhere to official agendas for public information and education.




Brown Disk with Gravity Potential


T. T. Brown‘s tethered disk showing charge clouds and suggestive plot of gravitational potential, courtesy Paul. A. LaViolette.


Brown claimed that the observed propulsive force driving the disk was generated by an electrostatic-gravitational interaction.


Though his demonstrations were impressive, and probably stimulated classified military research, neither Brown nor anyone else was able to satisfactorily explain the interaction until it was recently predicted by LaViolette’s subquantum kinetics.



Flame Jets

B-2 showing charges emitted by flame jets as interpreted by Paul LaViolette from information disclosed in Aviation Week (1992). Courtesy Paul A. LaViolette. Flame jets are jet engines with internal electrodes for disbursing negative ions in the exhaust stream.


Positive charges are conducted forward and distributed along the craft’s leading edges. The electrogravitic effect was not mentioned in the Aviation Week article.






SQK, Electrogravitics, and the B-2 Stealth Bomber

The Biefeld-Brown effect is a straightforward prediction of SQK.53


As described by Paul LaViolette in “The U.S. Antigravity Squadron” (1993), Brown’s disks generated a cloud of positive ions ahead of their leading edge, and a negatively-charged cloud behind the trailing edge.


According to SQK, this places the disk between a gravitational hill and well, and the disk continuously “falls downhill” with the clouds following along.

Understand that the forces propelling the disk are a function of the electrostatic potentials applied to the leading and trailing edges of the disk and can be made arbitrarily high. In a 1952 demonstration for the Air Force, Interavia magazine reported that tethered disks charged to several hundred thousand volts moved around a 50-foot-diameter circle at speeds of several hundred mph.

It is also important to realize that occupants of craft propelled in this way will be in free fall at all times and will feel no inertial forces under any degree of acceleration.



B-2 Stealth Bomber

LaViolette suggests that this propulsion technology is by now highly developed and operational in U.S. military aircraft – specifically the Northrup B-2 Advanced Technology Bomber – the stealth bomber.


Working with published information about this aircraft, LaViolette reads between the lines and develops considerable suggestive information about how the technology may be being used, both for lift and thrust. He also describes a zero-fuel operational mode with the craft powering itself with “energy tapped from its self-generated gravitational gradient”.

For a full review of what is publicly known about antigravity propulsion, see La Violette’s Secrets of Antigravity Propulsion (2008).

The importance of all this to SETI should be glaringly obvious. It is saying that we, today, possess technology that SETI does not ever allow its target ET civilization to have. For example, SETI is fond of saying that fuel requirements render interstellar travel impossible.

What, we wonder, does our own Department of Defense think of the SETI program?



SQK and Non-Hertzian Potential Waves

SQK models radiant energy as a propagating electric potential wave (“scalar reaction-diffusion wave”), rather than as a propagating electromagnetic force field wave (vector wave) of Maxwell’s theory, with its alternating electric (E) and magnetic (H) force field intensities transverse to the direction of propagation.

SQK’s electric potential wave has no magnetic wave component. In fact, magnetic potential fields do not exist in SQK. The wave also includes a gravity wave component.

These waves propagate forward because their field gradients extend longitudinally, as two types of etherons are alternately compressed and rarefied. In this they resemble sound waves, but these waves can induce transverse forces on distant test charges if they have been set up by charges moving transversely, because the motion of the charges creates transverse potential gradients.


Thus these primarily scalar waves can have the property of polarization. In that sense they are Hertzian waves.

But SQK also predicts the existence of energy waves that are primarily longitudinal. Such non-Hertzian waves would radiate from an electrically charged sphere (a monopole antenna) with an oscillating surface voltage – as in Nikola Tesla’s “monopole magnifying transmitter tower”.


Since “Tesla waves” would be incapable of accelerating charges transverse to their direction of propagation, conventional radio receivers (such as operated by SETI) would be unable to detect them. However, in a closed cavity, they would be able to produce standing waves of electric potential. Devices capable of detecting these waves have been demonstrated.

LaViolette gives a differential equation expressing Tesla-like scalar potential waves propagating longitudinally through the ether at a velocity that can be greater than c.

The point of discussing Tesla and electrogravitics on this page is to show that these technologies are neither mysterious nor complex in their basic principles. The reason there is little popular understanding of them is simply that they have been suppressed, for important strategic purposes.


That is also why SETI does not consider them. Unfortunately, by not considering them, SETI’s strategy is skewed away from success. I would suggest that SETI’s lack of success itself serves a greater strategy.


Finally, you, the reader, are made to suffer a severely constrained world view due to SETI’s failure.




The Electric Sky Model

Long overdue (as of March 2007) on this website has been mention of the “Electric Sky” model of astronomical and astrophysical objects, as developed by Wallace Thornhill, David Talbott, Anthony Peratt, Halton Arp and others, and summarized in the highly readable
The Electric Sky by Donald E. Scott (2006).

Unlike other exotic models discussed on this page, this one requires NO new constructs, rather an insistence on holding to well-known basic phenomena that have been willfully ignored at the convenience of mainstream astronomers and astrophysicists.

Perhaps the single basic concept on which “Electric Sky” takes its departure… rather, holds to the center path while all the others take their departures… was forcefully stated by Hannes Alfven in his Nobel Prize acceptance speech:

plasmas cannot be perfect electrical conductors because if they were, the very electric fields on which they depend for their existence would be annihilated.

Why is that so important?


It is because if they are not perfect conductors, then magnetic fields cannot be locked into them, and this has incredibly wide implications for astrophysics including solar physics, nuclear physics, and phenomena on every scale, including the Earth’s weather.

Another key feature of the “Electric Sky”, strangely ignored by astronomers and astrophysicists, is the so-called “Birkeland current“, an interaction between electrical currents in plasmas and magnetic fields giving rise to filamentary structures that carry energy over vast distances… energy sufficient to power stars and all sorts of astrophysical phenomena that have been amply observed but never properly understood.

Failure to recognize this source of stars’ energy has led to a total misunderstanding of the life cycle of stars, and on cosmological times and distances, factors on which the sacred “Drake Equation” of SETI is based.

Astrophysicists suffer from more than this simple blind spot.


They have missed the role of electromagnetic fields almost completely, preferring to explain their world in terms of gravity, magnetism, and fluid dynamics. But their explanations have had to invoke a menagerie of impossible beasts, such as black holes, undetectable or “missing” (“dark”) matter, open and reconnecting lines of magnetic force, etc.

Our plan for addressing this problem will be first to give you references to the defining sources, rather than give a second-hand summary of their excellent work here, and then to show the applications of their model to issues in the SETI world.

See The Electric Universe and The Electric Sky – Interview with the Author.

This table tersely maps the position of Open SETI, as will be developed on these pages, with respect to the SCAM and the Electric Sky models.




Position Element


Electric Sky


World Model

Needs work but entertaining

Most plausible

Electric Sky impacts ET


Science and Religion


Ancient myths encode important data but are highly delusional


Ancient myths are degraded remnants of clearly reported events





Not considered

Colonized solar system

Local evidence


For those who have not read the main sources, we’ll list here the “Plasma Pioneers” and their contributions, taking from the chapter of that name in Scott’s book.

Kristian Birkeland

Heroic expeditions to observe geomagnetic activity and auroras in northern Norway.

First to propose that electric currents come from the Sun, flow into Earth’s upper atmosphere, and cause the auroras. Generated artificial auroras in vacuum chambers with magnetized metal spheres (see Terrella) to represent the Earth.

His work was denigrated by the English mathematician Sydney Chapman who argued for a model based on the kinetic theory of neutral gases and a “dynamo” driven by tidal flows in the ionosphere.

Chapman eventually had to admit he was wrong when Birkeland’s model was shown correct through the use of high altitude rockets and satellite technology, but his ideas persist in atmospheric physics.

Discovered the twisted corkscrew-shaped paths taken by high-intensity electric currents in plasma. Discovered that electric currents in space tend to follow magnetic fields (“lines of force”), not cut across them (as suggested by the Lorentz force term qv cross B).

Irving Langmuir

Discovered the “double sheath” or “double layer” (DL) effect in plasmas.

Coined the term plasma to describe the almost lifelike, self-organizing, self-sustaining behavior of these ionized clouds in the presence of electric currents, magnetic fields, and foreign bodies. These have nothing to do with gas dynamics, to the eternal dismay of experts in gas dynamics.

Among the many properties of plasmas he discovered: plasma frequency.

The Langmuir probe, a laboratory tool still widely used.

Hannes Alfvén

Developed method of calculating the motions of electrons and ions in magnetic fields.

First to predict (1963) the large-scale filamentary structure of the universe. Played central role in the development of plasma physics, the physics of charged particle beams, and interplanetary and magnetospheric physics.

Twenty years before the discovery of the Van Allen radiation belt, developed the basic tools we use today to describe it. Proposed mechanism explaining the acceleration of cosmic rays now known as the Fermi Mechanism — before Fermi. Fought for years to make astronomers aware of the existence and importance of electric fields and currents in space.

With his students, developed the theoretical and mathematical foundation for the earlier experimental results of Birkeland and Langmuir.

Was never able to change the mindset of most astrophysicists who continue to follow the purely deductive mathematical approach championed by Chapman and followers that ignores the importance of electric currents and fields, treats plasmas as if they were gases, and views as “flawed” any observations that conflict with their models.

Anthony L. Peratt

Computer simulations of galaxy formation.

Published articles on Evolution of the Plasma Universe and Formation of Systems of Galaxies. Edited special issue of IEEE Transactions – a seminal publication that sets out the fundamental basis of the Electrical/Plasma Universe.

Using an extremely large computer, applied the Maxwell-Lorentz equations to each member of a huge ensemble of charged particles – the Particle in Cell (PIC) simulation – generating images of simulated galaxies almost indistinguishable from actual ones. The gravitational effects in the PIC simulation were negligible.

Published The Physics of the Plasma Universe (Springer-Verlag 1992) showing why electrical effects canot be ignored in any modern study of the cosmos.

Website: The Plasma Universe

Wallace Thornhill

Development of plasma models of astronomical objects and their features.





New Cosmologies

Having problems believing in the big bang? Relax; you’re in good company…

An Open Letter to the Scientific Community
published in New Scientist

May 22, 2004

from CosmologyStatement Website

The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed– inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples.

Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation.

It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory.


There is no “Open SETI cosmology” but conventional “Big Bang” cosmology is strongly contradicted by new formulations of physics that seem to be candidates for inclusion in an Open SETI paradigm.

Don Hotson points out that problems resulting from the Doppler interpretation of red shifting led to the ad hoc invention of expanding space, a phenomenon said to have begun with the Big Bang.


Among the many problems with the expanding space idea is that of explaining how expanding space can actually move any material object, going so far as to accelerate whole superclusters of galaxies to 99% of the speed of light.

Hotson shows that light loses quanta of energy to the medium through which it travels. This being the reason for observed red shifting, there is no expansion of the universe requiring an initial magical explosion.

In the open system of SQK, matter and energy formation at favored “supercritical” locations in the vicinity of gravitational potential wells gives rise to ever-growing structures spanning the hierarchy from subatomic particles all the way to galactic superclusters. The “genic energy” arising at the centers of all celestial bodies rather inverts conventional concepts of the life cycles of stars and galaxies.


While all these objects continue to grow and to evolve up the hierarchy, lone photons and other particles traveling through intergalactic space have a certain tendency to degenerate back into the transmutive ether along the way. This makes SQK a “tired-light cosmology” (like Hotson’s and Halton Arp‘s) and resolves Olber’s paradox (i.e., explains why the night sky is dark).

Tired-light cosmologies refute conventional redshift-age associations and can lead to radically different estimates of objects’ ages and distances.

As with Hotson’s physics, cosmogenesis in SQK is ongoing and there is no big bang. Thus the age of the universe is indefinite if you include the transmutive ether in your definition of “universe”.


There are two important qualifiers to this statement.

  • First, since the rate of production of matter and energy grows exponentially (due to the fact that it is favored in locations that already have matter in them) the vast majority of the manifested universe has come into being fairly recently; LaViolette suggests ten-fifteen billion years, which compares well with conventional estimates.

  • The second qualifier is that LaViolette considers even the underlying ether to be “open” in both directions, meaning that something even further removed from our view may be stirring the pot by flowing across an interface into it. So it could be that “something” which set things going originally, causing the first subatomic particles and energy potentials to appear as out of the void, whenever they did.

SQK’s explanation for our inability to directly perceive the transmutive ether and its etherons with our physical senses or our instruments is that we and our instruments are composed of matter and energies that simply do not interact directly with etherons.


It is concentrations and fluxes of etherons that create our matter and fields.


The Model G equations that describe these fluxes and dynamic interactions are not necessarily the complete set of equations that may describe all etheron dynamics. It could very well be that other etheron states could be associated with fluxes into other universes undetectable to us. Note that such universes would occupy the same space and time continua that we do; no matter, we still would not connect with them.

Not, at least, with our present technology. Can you see how this, along with other considerations of stellar evolution and the correct distance to other celestial bodies, are important considerations for SETI?

The complete story of these matters can be found in Subquantum Kinetics (2003) and Genesis of the Cosmos: The Ancient Science of Continuous Creation (2004). Both books are important for understanding the full picture. Also see Evidence Against the Expanding Universe Hypothesis.

A major portion of Genesis of the Cosmos is devoted to the concept that SQK is actually an ancient science, encoded for us in well-known myths – for example, the Egyptian myth of Osiris, Isis, Set, and Horus (representing etheron states and dynamics) as well as the Hindu gods.


The very idea that greater wisdom and knowledge may have been possessed by our ancient forebears is itself utterly at variance with the beliefs of modern society, which of course includes the beliefs of the SETI community.


But this idea has been a part of Open SETI since the original Opening of SETI paper was conceived and delivered in 1994. And this is why you are reading Open SETI.


Is it not so?



SETI, Take Notice!

The topics discussed on this page are of course fascinating in themselves, but they are also relevant to
Open SETI because SETI calibrates its paradigm according to what it perceives to be the limits on space travel and communications.


So here we have a taste of developments in physics and space technology that portend vastly changed possibilities for travel and communications in space.


Surely the next hundred years will see our own civilization gaining capabilities scarcely dreamed of today. Yet what is possible for us must be as nothing compared to the achievements of far older civilizations.


If SETI is constructed on an opinion of what is possible for a space-faring civilization, it surely needs to track and EXTRAPOLATE the progress taking place in these fields.