Ancient Nuclear Wars – Evidence Indicates That We Have Done It Before – Will We Ever Learn Before We Extinguish Ourselves – Audio and Text

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History WILL Repeat Itself if we do not learn from our mistakes. Small Wonder That The Visitors are so Concerned


by Philip Coppens

January 2005

from PhilipCoppens Website

recovered through WayBackMachine Website


Are the Indian remains of Mohenjo Daro and Harappa, their sudden abandonment and the apparent discovery of an ancient site with a layer of radioactive ash the best available evidence for the possibility that our ancient ancestors possessed a highly advanced technology – which might have included atomic warfare?

Did an ancient advanced civilization exist on Earth?


The question is very intriguing and the search for “evidence” to support a positive answer has intrigued Mankind for many decades – if not centuries. Many possibilities have been put forward, from outright statements that Atlantis was a high tech civilization, to the possibility that the Nazca lines might be a prehistoric airport.

Rather than an accumulation of various items of evidence that is then subjected to the possibility that it might be either alien or advanced, it is more scientific – and perhaps better- to focus on the quest for the “best evidence”: a single piece of evidence that in itself is the best example to support a conclusion.


In the search for an advanced ancient civilization, what would be this “best evidence”?

One possible item that would classify as “best evidence” exists within the Indus River Valley, where towns such as Harappa and Mohenjo Daro flourished in 3000 BC. The question is why these cities were abandoned. And one answer that has been put forward is that the ancient cities might have been irradiated by an atomic blast.


If true, it would be impossible to ignore the conclusion that ancient civilization possessed high technology.


The ruins of Harappa

The story begins when a layer of radioactive ash was found in Rajasthan, India.


It covered a three-square mile area, ten miles west of Jodhpur. The research occurred after a very high rate of birth defects and cancer was discovered in the area.


The levels of radiation registered so high on investigators’ gauges that the Indian government cordoned off the region. Scientists then apparently unearthed an ancient city where they found evidence of an atomic blast dating back thousands of years: from 8,000 to 12,000 years.


The blast was said to have destroyed most of the buildings and probably a half-million people.

Archeologist Francis Taylor stated that etchings in some nearby temples he translated suggested that they prayed to be spared from the great light that was coming to lay ruin to the city.

It’s so mind-boggling to imagine that some civilization had nuclear technology before we did. The radioactive ash adds credibility to the ancient Indian records that describe atomic warfare.”

When excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro reached the street level, they discovered skeletons scattered about the cities, many holding hands and sprawling in the streets as if some instant, horrible doom had taken place.


People were just lying, unburied, in the streets of the city. And these skeletons are thousands of years old, even by traditional archaeological standards.


What could cause such a thing? Why did the bodies not decay or get eaten by wild animals?


Furthermore, there is no apparent cause of a physically violent death.


A. Gorbovsky, in Riddles of Ancient History, reported the discovery of at least one human skeleton in this area with a level of radioactivity approximately 50 times greater than it should have been due to natural radiation.


Furthermore, thousands of fused lumps, christened “black stones”, have been found at Mohenjo-Daro. These appear to be fragments of clay vessels that melted together in extreme heat.

Another curious sign of an ancient nuclear war in India is a giant crater near Bombay. The nearly circular 2,154-metre-diameter Lonar crater (left image), located 400 kilometers northeast of Bombay and aged at less than 50,000 years old, could be related to nuclear warfare of antiquity.


No trace of any meteoric material, etc., has been found at the site or in the vicinity, and this is the world’s only known “impact” crater in basalt. Indications of great shock (from a pressure exceeding 600,000 atmospheres) and intense, abrupt heat (indicated by basalt glass spherules) can be ascertained from the site.

With the apparent discovery of this radiated area, parallels were quick drawn to the Mahabharata, the Indian epic.


It reads:

… (it was) a single projectile
Charged with all the power of the Universe.
An incandescent column of smoke and flame
As bright as the thousand suns
Rose in all its splendor…

…it was an unknown weapon,
An iron thunderbolt,
A gigantic messenger of death,
Which reduced to ashes
The entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas.

…The corpses were so burned
As to be unrecognizable.
The hair and nails fell out;
Pottery broke without apparent cause,
And the birds turned white.

After a few hours
All foodstuffs were infected…
….to escape from this fire
The soldiers threw themselves in streams
To wash themselves and their equipment.

Whereas the story of the Mahabharata is indirect evidence, the other discoveries in India pose serious problems for those trying to deny the possibility that this might indeed be evidence of ancient atomic warfare.


Whereas believing in the existence of Atlantis or a highly advanced civilization that might not have left any trace is one thing, to suggest that our ancestors might have wiped themselves out along the same lines we almost did, but only fifty years ago, is a major paradigm shift.


Some skeptics thus stated:

I am sick and tired of hearing this, and I cannot find any debunks of this either. Anyone who can debunk this, or is this really true?”

That is indeed the question… and an important one. The stakes are high, as one would expect when facing with the best evidence.


Lonar crater

So, let us discover what might be the best evidence.


The first question is whether a Francis Taylor existed. There is a Francis Taylor, an American museum director, who died in 1957. He was not an archaeologist. There is a “Francisco Taylor”, but he is not the above quoted Francis Taylor.

Not a good start. Skeptics have also wondered whether the ancient atomic warfare is not a modern invention, to deflect attention from a serious – modern – atomic contamination. In 1998, it was reported that an Indian power stations had some major problems. One had an incident in which 2000 workers became exposed to excess radiation, 300 of which had to be hospitalized.

Surendra Gadekar also investigated the conditions of villagers at Rawatbhatta in Rajasthan and discovered gross radiation-related deformities.


We note that Rawatbhatta is in the same region as the discovery of the “ancient warfare” site. But Gadekar did not find evidence of ancient warfare, but evidence of modern negligence: wood that had been used in the power plant, had then “somehow” made his way into society, where it was subsequently used as wood for a fire.


This in itself was a minor incident, but could there have been more serious incidents, whereby it was decided to deflect attention from the present to the ancient past?

We thus find that there no newspapers carried the story of the discovery. The Indian archaeological authorities are not aware of the story. And there is a government laboratory in Jodhpur, Rajasthan.


Might something have gone wrong in the latter?


The nuclear facility at Rawatbhatta

With the above objections, the case for the best evidence has become more controversial than a clean-cut case.


But in a case such as an ancient high tech civilization, this should not come as a surprise. Rome was not built in one day, and arguing for or against the case of an ancient highly advanced civilization will not take any less time.

There should also not be a rush to judgment: the case for ancient warfare in India is currently better than any contradictory evidence.


The bodies of Harappa and Mohenjo Daro remain a mystery, whether or not the other radioactive site turns out to be modern or ancient. The anomalous crater adds power to the possibility. Finally, the fact that all these enigmas are within one general region (as opposed to scattered across the world) adds further weight to the case… but then this should be expected if we might consider this case to be the best evidence.

The problem of the “best evidence” is often that it sounds too good to be true. That is either because it is, or because it is indeed the “best evidence”.


And only careful analysis of the evidence will reveal what it is…

by David Hatcher Childress

Nexus Magazine

Volume 7, Number 5

November-December 2000 USA

Extracted from Chapter 6
Technology of the Gods – The Incredible Sciences of the Ancients
from NexusMagazine Website


Return to David Hatcher Childress

Return to Ancient Atomic Warfare









Part One

Nexus Magazine

Volume 7, Number 5

November-December 2000 USA



Religious texts and geological evidence suggest that several parts of the world have experienced destructive atomic blasts in ages past




The following item appeared in the New York Herald Tribune on February 16, 1947 (and was repeated by Ivan T. Sanderson in the January 1970 issue of his magazine, Pursuit):

When the first atomic bomb exploded in New Mexico, the desert sand turned to fused green glass. This fact, according to the magazine Free World, has given certain archaeologists a turn. They have been digging in the ancient Euphrates Valley and have uncovered a layer of agrarian culture 8,000 years old, and a layer of herdsman culture much older, and a still older caveman culture. Recently, they reached another layer of fused green glass.

It is well known that atomic detonations on or above a sandy desert will melt the silicon in the sand and turn the surface of the Earth into a sheet of glass. But if sheets of ancient desert glass can be found in various parts of the world, does it mean that atomic wars were fought in the ancient past or, at the very least, that atomic testing occurred in the dim ages of history?

This is a startling theory, but one that is not lacking in evidence, as such ancient sheets of desert glass are a geological fact. Lightning strikes can sometimes fuse sand, meteorologists contend, but this is always in a distinctive root-like pattern. These strange geological oddities are called fulgurites and manifest as branched tubular forms rather than as flat sheets of fused sand. Therefore, lightning is largely ruled out as the cause of such finds by geologists, who prefer to hold onto the theory of a meteor or comet strike as the cause. The problem with this theory is that there is usually no crater associated with these anomalous sheets of glass.

Brad Steiger and Ron Calais report in their book, Mysteries of Time and Space,1 that Albion W. Hart, one of the first engineers to graduate from Massachusetts Institute of Technology, was assigned an engineering project in the interior of Africa. While he and his men were traveling to an almost inaccessible region, they first had to cross a great expanse of desert.


“At the time he was puzzled and quite unable to explain a large expanse of greenish glass which covered the sands as far as he could see,” writes Margarethe Casson in an article on Hart’s life in the magazine Rocks and Minerals (no. 396, 1972). She then goes on to mention: “Later on, during his life, he passed by the White Sands area after the first atomic explosion there, and he recognized the same type of silica fusion which he had seen fifty years earlier in the African desert.” 2




Tektites: A Terrestrial Explanation?

Large desert areas strewn with mysterious globules of “glass”–
known as tektites–are occasionally discussed in geological literature. These blobs of “hardened glass” (glass is a liquid, in fact) are thought to come from meteorite impacts in most instances, but the evidence shows that in many cases there is no impact crater.

Another explanation is that tektites have a terrestrial explanation–one that includes atomic war or high-tech weapons capable of melting sand. The tektite debate was summed up in an article entitled “The Tektite Problem”, by John O’Keefe, published in the August 1978 edition of Scientific American. Said O’Keefe:

If tektites are terrestrial, it means that some process exists by which soil or common rocks can be converted in an instant into homogeneous, water-free, bubble-free glass and be propelled thousands of miles above the atmosphere. If tektites come from the Moon, it seems to follow that there is at least one powerful volcano somewhere on the Moon that has erupted at least as recently as 750,000 years ago. Neither possibility is easy to accept. Yet one of them must be accepted, and I believe it is feasible to pick the more reasonable one by rejecting the more unlikely.

The key to solving the tektite problem is an insistence on a physically reasonable hypothesis and a resolute refusal to be impressed by mere numerical coincidences such as the similarity of terrestrial sediments to tektite material. I believe that the lunar volcanism hypothesis is the only one physically possible, and that we have to accept it. If it leads to unexpected but not impossible conclusions, that is precisely its utility.

To cite just one example of the utility, the lunar origin of tektites strongly supports the idea that the Moon was formed by fission of the Earth. Tektites are indeed much more like terrestrial rocks than one would expect of a chance assemblage. If tektites come from a lunar magma, then deep inside the Moon there must be material that is very much like the mantle of the Earth–more like the mantle than it is like the shallower parts of the Moon from which the lunar surface basalts have originated. If the Moon was formed by fission of the Earth, the object that became the Moon would have been heated intensely and from the outside, and would have lost most of its original mass and in particular the more volatile elements. The lavas constituting most of the Moon’s present surface were erupted early in the Moon’s history, when its heat was concentrated in the shallow depleted zone quite near the surface. During the recent periods represented by tektite falls, the sources of lunar volcanism have necessarily been much deeper, so that any volcanoes responsible for tektites have drawn on the lunar material that suffered least during the period of ablation and is therefore most like unaltered terrestrial mantle material. Ironically, that would explain why tektites are in some ways more like terrestrial rocks than they are like the rocks of the lunar surface.



Mysterious Glass in the Egyptian Sahara

One of the strangest mysteries of ancient Egypt is that of the great glass sheets that were only discovered in 1932. In December of that year, Patrick Clayton, a surveyor for the Egyptian Geological Survey, was driving among the dunes of the Great Sand Sea near the Saad Plateau in the virtually uninhabited area just north of the southwestern corner of Egypt, when he heard his tyres crunch on something that wasn’t sand. It turned out to be large pieces of marvelously clear, yellow-green glass.

In fact, this wasn’t just any ordinary glass, but ultra-pure glass that was an astonishing 98 per cent silica. Clayton wasn’t the first person to come across this field of glass, as various ‘prehistoric’ hunters and nomads had obviously also found the now-famous Libyan Desert Glass (LDG). The glass had been used in the past to make knives and sharp-edged tools as well as other objects. A carved scarab of LDG was even found in Tutankhamen’s tomb, indicating that the glass was sometimes used for jewellery.

An article by Giles Wright in the British science magazine New Scientist (July 10, 1999), entitled “The Riddle of the Sands”, says that LDG is the purest natural silica glass ever found. Over a thousand tones of it are strewn across hundreds of kilometers of bleak desert. Some of the chunks weigh 26 kilograms, but most LDG exists in smaller, angular pieces–looking like shards left when a giant green bottle was smashed by colossal forces.

According to the article, LDG, pure as it is, does contain tiny bubbles, white wisps and inky black swirls. The whitish inclusions consist of refractory minerals such as cristobalite. The ink-like swirls, though, are rich in iridium, which is diagnostic of an extraterrestrial impact such as a meteorite or comet, according to conventional wisdom. The general theory is that the glass was created by the searing, sand-melting impact of a cosmic projectile.

However, there are serious problems with this theory, says Wright, and many mysteries concerning this stretch of desert containing the pure glass. The main problem: Where did this immense amount of widely dispersed glass shards come from? There is no evidence of an impact crater of any kind; the surface of the Great Sand Sea shows no sign of a giant crater, and neither do microwave probes made deep into the sand by satellite radar.

Furthermore, LDG seems to be too pure to be derived from a messy cosmic collision. Wright mentions that known impact craters, such as the one at Wabar in Saudi Arabia, are littered with bits of iron and other meteorite debris. This is not the case with the Libyan Desert Glass site. What is more, LDG is concentrated in two areas, rather than one. One area is oval-shaped; the other is a circular ring, six kilometers wide and 21 kilometers in diameter. The ring’s wide centre is devoid of the glass.

One theory is that there was a soft projectile impact: a meteorite, perhaps 30 meters in diameter, may have detonated about 10 kilometers or so above the Great Sand Sea, the searing blast of hot air melting the sand beneath. Such a craterless impact is thought to have occurred in the 1908 Tunguska event in Siberia–at least as far as mainstream science is concerned. That event, like the pure desert glass, remains a mystery.

Another theory has a meteorite glancing off the desert surface, leaving a glassy crust and a shallow crater that was soon filled in. But there are two known areas of LDG. Were there two cosmic projectiles in tandem?

Alternatively, is it possible that the vitrified desert is the result of atomic war in the ancient past? Could a Tesla-type beam weapon have melted the desert, perhaps in a test?

An article entitled “Dating the Libyan Desert Silica-Glass” appeared in the British journal Nature (no. 170) in 1952. Said the author, Kenneth Oakley: 3

Pieces of natural silica-glass up to 16 lb in weight occur scattered sparsely in an oval area, measuring 130 km north to south and 53 km from east to west, in the Sand Sea of the Libyan Desert. This remarkable material, which is almost pure (97 per cent silica), relatively light (sp. gin. 2.21), clear and yellowish-green in color, has the qualities of a gemstone. It was discovered by the Egyptian Survey Expedition under Mr P.A. Clayton in 1932, and was thoroughly investigated by Dr L.J. Spencer, who joined a special expedition of the Survey for this purpose in 1934.

The pieces are found in sand-free corridors between north-south dune ridges, about 100 m high and 2-5 km apart. These corridors or “streets” have a rubbly surface, rather like that of a “speedway” track, formed by angular gravel and red loamy weathering debris overlying Nubian sandstone. The pieces of glass lie on this surface or partly embedded in it. Only a few small fragments were found below the surface, and none deeper than about one meter. All the pieces on the surface have been pitted or smoothed by sand-blast. The distribution of the glass is patchy.

While undoubtedly natural, the origin of the Libyan silica-glass is uncertain. In its constitution it resembles the tektites of supposed cosmic origin, but these are much smaller. Tektites are usually black, although one variety found in Bohemia and Moravia and known as moldavite is clear deep-green. The Libyan silica-glass has also been compared with the glass formed by the fusion of sand in the heat generated by the fall of a great meteorite; for example, at Wabar in Arabia and at Henbury in central Australia.

Reporting the findings of his expedition, Dr Spencer said that he had not been able to trace the Libyan glass to any source; no fragments of meteorites or indications of meteorite craters could be found in the area of its distribution. He said: “It seemed easier to assume that it had simply fallen from the sky.”

It would be of considerable interest if the time of origin or arrival of the silica-glass in the Sand Sea could be determined geologically or archaeologically. Its restriction to the surface or top layer of a superficial deposit suggests that it is not of great antiquity from the geological point of view. On the other hand, it has clearly been there since prehistoric times. Some of the flakes were submitted to Egyptologists in Cairo, who regarded them as “late Neolithic or pre-dynastic”. In spite of a careful search by Dr Spencer and the late Mr A. Lucas, no objects of silica-glass could be found in the collections from Tut-Ankh-Amen’s tomb or from any of the other dynastic tombs. No potsherds were encountered in the silica-glass area, but in the neighborhood of the flakings some “crude spear-points of glass” were found; also some quartzite implements, “quernstones” and ostrich-shell fragments.

Oakley is apparently incorrect when he says that LDG was not found in Tutankhamen’s tomb, as according to Wright a piece was found.

At any rate, the vitrified areas of the Libyan Desert are yet to be explained. Are they evidence of an ancient war–a war that may have turned North Africa and Arabia into the desert that it is today?


The Vitrified Forts of Scotland

One of the great mysteries of classical archaeology is the existence of many vitrified forts in Scotland. Are they also evidence of some ancient atomic war? Maybe, but maybe not.

There are said to be at least 60 such forts throughout Scotland. Among the most well-known are Tap o’Noth, Dunnideer, Craig Phadraig (near Inverness), Abernathy (near Perth), Dun Lagaidh (in Ross), Cromarty, Arka-Unskel, Eilean na Goar, and Bute-Dunagoil on the Sound of Bute off Arran Island. Another well-known vitrified fort is the Cauadale hill-fort in Argyll, West Scotland.

One of the best examples of a vitrified fort is Tap o’Noth, which is near the village of Rhynie in northeastern Scotland. This massive fort from prehistory is on the summit of a mountain of the same name which, being 1,859 feet (560 meters) high, commands an impressive view of the Aberdeenshire countryside. At first glance it seems that the walls are made of a rubble of stones, but on closer look it is apparent that they are made not of dry stones but of melted rocks!  What were once individual stones are now black and cindery masses, fused together by heat that must have been so intense that molten rivers of rock once ran down the walls.

Reports on vitrified forts were made as far back as 1880 when Edward Hamilton wrote an article entitled “Vitrified Forts on the West Coast of Scotland” in the Archaeological Journal (no. 37, 1880, pp. 227&endash;243). In his article, Hamilton describes several sites in detail, including Arka-Unskel: 4

At the point where Loch na Nuagh begins to narrow, where the opposite shore is about one-and-a-half to two miles distant, is a small promontory connected with the mainland by a narrow strip of sand and grass, which evidently at one time was submerged by the rising tide. On the flat summit of this promontory are the ruins of a vitrified fort, the proper name for which is Arka-Unskel.

The rocks on which this fort are placed are metamorphic gneiss, covered with grass and ferns, and rise on three sides almost perpendicular for about 110 feet from the sea level. The smooth surface on the top is divided by a slight depression into two portions. On the largest, with precipitous sides to the sea, the chief portion of the fort is situated, and occupies the whole of the flat surface. It is of somewhat oval form. The circumference is about 200 feet, and the vitrified walls can be traced in its entire length. We dug under the vitrified mass, and there found what was extremely interesting, as throwing some light on the manner in which the fire was applied for the purpose of vitrification. The internal part of the upper or vitrified wall for about a foot or a foot-and-a-half was untouched by the fire, except that some of the flat stones were slightly agglutinated together, and that the stones, all feldspatic, were placed in layers one upon another.

It was evident, therefore, that a rude foundation of boulder stones was first formed upon the original rock, and then a thick layer of loose, mostly flat stones of feldspatic sand, and of a different kind from those found in the immediate neighborhood, were placed on this foundation, and then vitrified by heat applied externally. This foundation of loose stones is found also in the vitrified fort of Dun Mac Snuichan, on Loch Etive.

Hamilton describes another vitrified fort that is much larger, situated on the island at the entrance of Loch Ailort.

This island, locally termed Eilean na Goar, is the most eastern and is bounded on all sides by precipitous gneiss rocks; it is the abode and nesting place of numerous sea birds. The flat surface on the top is 120 feet from the sea level, and the remains of the vitrified fort are situated on this, oblong in form, with a continuous rampart of vitrified wall five feet thick, attached at the SW end to a large upright rock of gneiss. The space enclosed by this wall is 420 feet in circumference and 70 feet in width. The rampart is continuous and about five feet in thickness. At the eastern end is a great mass of wall in situ, vitrified on both sides. In the centre of the enclosed space is a deep depression in which are masses of the vitrified wall strewed about, evidently detached from their original site.

Hamilton naturally asks a few obvious questions about the forts. Were these structures built as a means of defense? Was the vitrification the result of design or accident? How was the vitrification produced?

In this vitrification process, huge blocks of stones have been fused with smaller rubble to form a hard, glassy mass. Explanations for the vitrification are few and far between, and none of them is universally accepted.

One early theory was that these forts are located on ancient volcanoes (or the remains of them) and that the people used molten stone ejected from eruptions to build their settlements.

This idea was replaced with the theory that the builders of the walls had designed the forts in such a way that the vitrification was purposeful in order to strengthen the walls. This theory postulated that fires had been lit and flammable material added to produce walls strong enough to resist the dampness of the local climate or the invading armies of the enemy. It is an interesting theory, but one that presents several problems. For starters, there is really no indication that such vitrification actually strengthens the walls of the fortress; rather, it seems to weaken them. In many cases, the walls of the forts seem to have collapsed because of the fires. Also, since the walls of many Scottish forts are only partially vitrified, this would hardly have proved an effective building method.

Julius Caesar described a type of wood and stone fortress, known as a murus gallicus, in his account of the Gallic Wars. This was interesting to those seeking solutions to the vitrified fort mystery because these forts were made of a stone wall filled with rubble, with wooden logs inside for stability. It seemed logical to suggest that perhaps the burning of such a wood-filled wall might create the phenomenon of vitrification.

Some researchers are sure that the builders of the forts caused the vitrification. Arthur C. Clarke quotes one team of chemists from the Natural History Museum in London who were studying the many forts: 5

Considering the high temperatures which have to be produced, and the fact that possibly sixty or so vitrified forts are to be seen in a limited geographical area of Scotland, we do not believe that this type of structure is the result of accidental fires. Careful planning and construction were needed.

However, one Scottish archaeologist, Helen Nisbet, believes that the vitrification was not done on purpose by the builders of the forts. In a thorough analysis of rock types used, she reveals that most of the forts were built of stone easily available at the chosen site and not chosen for their property of vitrification. 6

The vitrification process itself, even if purposely set, is quite a mystery. A team of chemists on Arthur C. Clarke’s Mysterious World subjected rock samples from 11 forts to rigorous chemical analysis, and stated that the temperatures needed to produce the vitrification were so intense–up to 1,100°C–that a simple burning of walls with wood interlaced with stone could not have achieved such temperatures. 7

Nevertheless, experiments carried out in the 1930s by the famous archaeologist V. Gordon Childe and his colleague Wallace Thorneycroft showed that forts could be set on fire and generate enough heat to vitrify the stone.8 In 1934, these two designed a test wall that was 12 feet long, six feet wide and six feet high, which was built for them at Plean Colliery in Stirlingshire. They used old fireclay bricks for the faces and pit props as timber, and filled the cavity between the walls with small cubes of basalt rubble. They covered the top with turf and then piled about four tons of scrap timber and brushwood against the walls and set fire to them. Because of a snowstorm in progress, a strong wind fanned the blazing mixture of wood and stone so that the inner core did attain some vitrification of the rock.

In June 1937, Childe and Thorneycroft duplicated their test vitrification at the ancient fort of Rahoy, in Argyllshire, using rocks found at the site. Their experiments did not resolve any of the questions surrounding vitrified forts, however, because they had only proven that it was theoretically possible to pile enough wood and brush on top of a mixture of wood and stone to vitrify the mass of stone. One criticism of Childe is that he seems to have used a larger proportion of wood to stone than many historians believe made up the ancient wood and stone fortresses.

An important part of Childe’s theory was that it was invaders, not the builders, who were assaulting the forts and then setting fire to the walls with piles of brush and wood; however, it is hard to understand why people would have repeatedly built defenses that invaders could destroy with fire, when great ramparts of solid stone would have survived unscathed.

Critics of the assault theory point out that in order to generate enough heat by a natural fire, the walls would have to have been specially constructed to create the heat necessary. It seems unreasonable to suggest the builders would specifically create forts to be burned or that such a great effort would be made by invaders to create the kind of fire it would take to vitrify the walls–at least with traditional techniques.

One problem with all the many theories is their assumption of a primitive state of culture associated with ancient Scotland.

It is astonishing to think of how large and well coordinated the population or army must have been that built and inhabited these ancient structures. Janet and Colin Bord in their book, Mysterious Britain,9 speak of Maiden Castle to give an idea of the vast extent of this marvel of prehistoric engineering.

It covers an area of 120 acres, with an average width of 1,500 feet and length of 3,000 feet. The inner circumference is about 11Ú2 miles round, and it has been estimated… that it would require 250,000 men to defend it! It is hard, therefore, to believe that this construction was intended to be a defensive position.

A great puzzle to archaeologists has always been the multiple and labyrinthine east and west entrances at each end of the enclosure. Originally they may have been built as a way for processional entry by people of the Neolithic era. Later, when warriors of the Iron Age were using the site as a fortress, they probably found them useful as a means of confusing the attacking force trying to gain entry. The fact that so many of these “hill-forts” have two entrances–one north of east and the other south of west–also suggests some form of Sun ceremonial.

With 250,000 men defending a fort, we are talking about a huge army in a very organized society. This is not a bunch of fur-wearing Picts with spears defending a fort from marauding bands of hunter-gatherers. The questions remain, though. What huge army might have occupied these cliffside forts by the sea or lake entrances? And what massive maritime power were these people unsuccessfully defending themselves against?

The forts on the western coast of Scotland are reminiscent of the mysterious clifftop forts in the Aran Islands on the west coast of Ireland. Here we truly have shades of the Atlantis story, with a powerful naval fleet attacking and conquering its neighbors in a terrible war. It has been theorized that the terrible battles of the Atlantis story took place in Wales, Scotland, Ireland and England–however, in the case of the Scottish vitrified forts it looks as if these were the losers of a war, not the victors. And defeat can be seen across the land: the war dykes in Sussex, the vitrified forts of Scotland, the utter collapse and disappearance of the civilization that built these things. What long-ago Armageddon destroyed ancient Scotland?

In ancient times there was a substance known through writings as Greek fire. This was some sort of ancient napalm bomb that was hurled by catapult and could not be put out. Some forms of Greek fire were even said to burn under water and were therefore used in naval battles. (The actual composition of Greek fire is unknown, but it must have contained chemicals such as phosphorus, pitch, sulphur or other flammable chemicals.)

Could a form of Greek fire have been responsible for the vitrification? While ancient astronaut theorists may believe that extraterrestrials with their atomic weapons vitrified these walls, it seems more likely that they are the result of a man-made apocalypse of a chemical nature. With siege machines, battleships and Greek fire, did a vast flotilla storm the huge forts and eventually burn them down in a hellish blaze?

The evidence of the vitrified forts is clear: some hugely successful and organized civilization was living in Scotland, England and Wales in prehistoric times, circa 1000 BC or more, and was building gigantic structures including forts. This apparently was a maritime civilization that prepared itself for naval warfare as well as other forms of attack.

Vitrified Ruins in France, Turkey and the Middle East

Vitrified ruins can also be found in France, Turkey and some areas of the Middle East.

Vitrified forts in France are discussed in the American Journal of Science (vol. 3, no. 22, 1881, pp. 150-151) in an article entitled “On the Substances Obtained from Some ‘Forts Vitrifiés’ in France”, by M. Daubrée. The author mentions several forts in Brittany and northern France whose granite blocks have been vitrified. He cites the “partially fused granitic rocks from the forts of Château-vieux and of Puy de Gaudy (Creuse), also from the neighborhood of Saint Brieuc (Côtes-du-Nord)”.10 Daubrée, understandably, could not readily find an explanation for the vitrification.

Similarly, the ruins of Hattusas in central Turkey, an ancient Hittite city, are partially vitrified. The Hittites are said to be the inventors of the chariot, and horses were of great importance to them. It is on the ancient Hittite stelae that we first see a depiction of the chariot in use. However, it seems unlikely that horsemanship and wheeled chariots were invented by the Hittites; it is highly likely that chariots were in use in ancient China at the same time.

The Hittites were also linked to the world of ancient India. Proto-Indic writing has been found at Hattusas, and scholars now admit that the civilization of India, as the ancient Indian texts like the Ramayana have said, goes back many millennia.

In his 1965 book, The Bible as History,11 German historian Werner Keller cites some of the mysteries concerning the Hittites. According to Keller, the Hittites are first mentioned in the Bible (in Genesis 23) in connection with the biblical patriarch Abraham who acquired from the Hittites a burial place in Hebron for his wife Sarah. Conservative classical scholar Keller is confused by this, because the time period of Abraham was circa 2000-1800 BC, while the Hittites are traditionally said to have appeared in the 16th century BC.

Even more confusing to Keller is the biblical statement (in Numbers 13:29-30) that the Hittites were the founders of Jerusalem. This is a fascinating statement, as it would mean that the Hittites also occupied Ba’albek, which lies between their realm and Jerusalem. The Temple Mount at Jerusalem is built on a foundation of huge ashlars, as is Ba’albek. The Hittites definitely used the gigantic megalithic construction known as cyclopean–huge, odd-shaped polygonal blocks, perfectly fitted together. The massive walls and gates of Hattusas are eerily similar in construction to those in the high Andes and other megalithic sites around the world. The difference at Hattusas is that parts of the city are vitrified, and the walls of rock have been partly melted. If the Hittites were the builders of Jerusalem, it would mean that the ancient Hittite Empire existed for several thousand years and had frontiers with Egypt. Indeed, the Hittite hieroglyphic script is undeniably similar to Egyptian hieroglyphs, probably more so than any other language.

Just as Egypt goes back many thousands of years BC and is ultimately connected to Atlantis, so does the ancient Hittite Empire. Like the Egyptians, the Hittites carved massive granite sphinxes, built on a cyclopean scale and worshipped the Sun. The Hittites also used the common motif of a winged disc for their Sun god, just as the Egyptians did. The Hittites were well known in the ancient world because they were the main manufacturers of iron and bronze goods. The Hittites were metallurgists and seafarers. Their winged discs may in fact have been representations of vimanas–flying machines.

Some of the ancient ziggurats of Iran and Iraq also contain vitrified material, sometimes thought by archaeologists to be caused by the Greek fire. For instance, the vitrified remains of the ziggurat at Birs Nimrod (Borsippa), south of Hillah, were once confused with the Tower of Babel. The ruins are crowned by a mass of vitrified brickwork–actual clay bricks fused together by intense heat. This may be due to the horrific ancient wars described in the Ramayana and Mahabharata, although early archaeologists attributed the effect to lightning.

Greek Fire, Plasma Guns and Atomic Warfare

If one were to believe the great Indian epic of the Mahabharata, fantastic battles were fought in the past with airships, particle beams, chemical warfare and presumably atomic weapons. Just as battles in the 20th century have been fought with incredibly devastating weapons, it may well be that battles in the latter days of Atlantis were fought with highly sophisticated, high-tech weapons.

The mysterious Greek fire was a “chemical fireball”. Incendiary mixtures go back at least to the 5th century BC, when Aineias the Tactician wrote a book called On the Defence of Fortified Positions. Said he:12

And fire itself, which is to be powerful and quite inextinguishable, is to be prepared as follows. Pitch, sulphur, tow, granulated frankincense, and pine sawdust in sacks you should ignite if you wish to set any of the enemy’s works on fire.

L. Sprague de Camp mentions in his book, The Ancient Engineers,13 that at some point it was found that petroleum, which seeps out of the ground in Iraq and elsewhere, made an ideal base for incendiary mixtures because it could be squirted from syringes of the sort then used in fighting fires. Other substances were added to it, such as sulphur, olive oil, rosin, bitumen, salt and quicklime.

Some of these additives may have helped–sulphur at least made a fine stench–but others did not, although it was thought that they did. Salt, for instance, may have been added because the sodium in it gave the flame a bright orange color. The ancients, supposing that a brighter flame was necessarily a hotter flame, mistakenly believed that salt made the fire burn more fiercely. Such mixtures were put in thin wooden casks and thrown from catapults at hostile ships and at wooden siege engines and defense works.

According to de Camp, in AD 673 the architect Kallinikos fled ahead of Arab invaders from Helipolis-Ba’albek to Constantinople. There he revealed to Emperor Constantine IV an improved formula for a liquid incendiary. This could not only be squirted at the foe but could also be used with great effect at sea, because it caught fire when it touched the water and floated, flaming on the waves.

De Camp says that Byzantine galleys were armed with a flame-throwing apparatus in the bow, consisting of a tank of this mixture, a pump and a nozzle. With the help of this compound, the Byzantines broke the Arab sieges of AD 674-76 and AD 715-18, and also beat off the Russian attacks of AD 941 and 1043. The incendiary liquid wrought immense havoc; of 800 Arab ships which attacked Constantinople in 716 AD, only a handful returned home.

The formula for the wet version of Greek fire has never been discovered. Says de Camp:

By careful security precautions, the Byzantine Emperors succeeded in keeping the secret of this substance, called “wet fire” or “wild fire”, so dark that it never did become generally known. When asked about it, they blandly replied that an angel had revealed the formula to the first Constantine.

We can, therefore, only guess the nature of the mixture. According to one disputed theory, wet fire was petroleum with an admixture of calcium phosphide, which can be made from lime, bones and urine. Perhaps Kallinikos stumbled across this substance in the course of alchemical experiments.

Vitrification of brick, rock and sand may have been caused by any number of high-tech means. New Zealand author Robin Collyns suggests in his book, Ancient Astronauts: A Time Reversal?,14 that there are five methods by which the ancients or “ancient astronauts” might have waged war on various societies on planet Earth. He outlines how these methods are again on the rise in modern society.


The five methods are:

  • plasma guns

  • fusion torches

  • holes punched in the ozone layer

  • manipulation of weather processes

  • release of immense energy, such as with an atomic blast

As Collyns’s book was published in Britain in 1976, the mentions of holes in the ozone layer and weather warfare seem strangely prophetic.

Explaining the plasma gun, Collyns says:

The plasma gun has already been developed experimentally for peaceful purposes: Ukrainian scientists from the Geotechnical Mechanics Institute have experimentally drilled tunnels in iron ore mines by using a plasmatron, i.e., a plasma gas jet which delivers a temperature of 6,000°C.

A plasma, in this case, is an electrified gas. Electrified gases are also featured in the Vymaanika-Shaastra, 15 the ancient book from India on vimanas, which cryptically talks of using for fuel the liquid metal mercury, which could be a plasma if electrified.

Collyns goes on to describe a fusion torch:

This is still another possible method of warfare used by spacemen, or ancient advanced civilizations on Earth. Perhaps the solar mirrors of antiquity really were fusion torches? The fusion torch is basically a further development of the plasma jet. In 1970 a theory to develop a fusion torch was presented at the New York aerospace science meeting by Drs Bernard J. Eastlund and William C. Cough. The basic idea is to generate a fantastic heat of at least fifty million degrees Celsius which could be contained and controlled. That is, the energy released could be used for many peaceful applications with zero radioactive waste products to avoid contaminating the environment, or zero production of radioactive elements which would be highly dangerous, such as plutonium which is the most deadly substance known to man. Thermonuclear fusion occurs naturally in stellar processes, and unnaturally in man-made H-bomb explosions.

The fusion of a deuterium nucleus (a heavy hydrogen isotope which can be easily extracted from sea water) with another deuterium nucleus, or with tritium (another isotope of hydrogen) or with helium, could be used. The actual fusion torch would be an ionised plasma jet which would vaporize anything and everything that the jet was directed at–if…used for harmful purposes–while for peaceful applications, one use of the torch could be to reclaim basic elements from junk metals.

University of Texas scientists announced in 1974 that they had actually developed the first experimental fusion torch which gave an incredible heat output of ninety-three degrees Celsius. This is five times the previous hottest temperature for a contained gas and is twice the minimum heat needed for fusion, but it was held only for one fifty-millionth of a second instead of the one full second which would be required.

It is curious to note here that Dr Bernard Eastlund is the patent holder of another unusual device–one that is associated with the High-frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP), based at Gakona, Alaska. HAARP is allegedly linked to weather manipulation–one of the ways in which Collyns thinks the ancients waged warfare.

As far as holes in the ozone layer and weather manipulation go, Collyns says:

Soviet scientists have discussed and proposed at the United Nations a ban on developing new warfare ideas such as creating holes or “windows” in the ozone layer to bombard specific areas of the Earth with increased natural ultra-violet radiation, which would kill all life-forms and turn the land into barren desert.

Other ideas discussed at the meeting were the use of “infrasound” to demolish ships by creating acoustic fields on the sea, and hurling a huge chunk of rock into the sea with a cheap atomic device. The resultant tidal wave could demolish the coastal fringe of a country. Other tidal waves could be created by detonating nuclear devices at the frozen poles. Controlled floods, hurricanes, earthquakes and droughts directed towards specific targets and cities are other possibilities.

Finally, although not a new method of warfare, incendiary weapons are now being developed to the point where “chemical fireballs” will be produced which radiated thermal energy similar to that of an atomic bomb.



Vitrified Ruins in California’s Death Valley: Evidence of Atomic War?

In Secrets of the Lost Races,16 Rene Noorbergen discusses the evidence for a cataclysmic war in the remote past that included the use of airships and weapons that vitrified stone cities.

The most numerous vitrified remains in the New World are located in the western United States. In 1850 the American explorer Captain Ives William Walker was the first to view some of these ruins, situated in Death Valley. He discovered a city about a mile long, with the lines of the streets and the positions of the buildings still visible. At the center he found a huge rock, between 20 to 30 feet high, with the remains of an enormous structure atop it. The southern side of both the rock and the building was melted and vitrified. Walker assumed that a volcano had been responsible for this phenomenon, but there is no volcano in the area. In addition, tectonic heat could not have caused such a liquefication of the rock surface.

An associate of Captain Walker who followed up his initial exploration commented: “The whole region between the rivers Gila and San Juan is covered with remains. The ruins of cities are to be found there which must be most extensive, and they are burnt out and vitrified in part, full of fused stones and craters caused by fires which were hot enough to liquefy rock or metal. There are paving stones and houses torn with monstrous cracks [as though they had] been attacked by a giant’s fire-plough.”

These vitrified ruins in Death Valley sound fascinating–but do they really exist? There certainly is evidence of ancient civilizations in the area. In Titus Canyon, petroglyphs and inscriptions have been scratched into the walls by unknown prehistoric hands. Some experts think the graffiti might have been made by people who lived here long before the Indians we know of, because extant Indians know nothing of the glyphs and, indeed, regard them with superstitious awe.

Says Jim Brandon in Weird America:17

Piute legends tell of a city beneath Death Valley that they call Shin-au-av. Tom Wilson, an Indian guide in the 1920s, claimed that his grandfather had rediscovered the place by wandering into a miles-long labyrinth of caves beneath the valley floor.

Eventually the Indian came to an underworld city where the people spoke an incomprehensible language and wore clothing made of leather.

Wilson told this story after a prospector named White claimed he had fallen through the floor of an abandoned mine at Wingate Pass and into an unknown tunnel. White followed this into a series of rooms, where he found hundreds of leather-clad humanoid mummies. Gold bars were stacked like bricks and piled in bins.

White claimed he had explored the caverns on three occasions. On one, his wife accompanied him; and on another, his partner, Fred Thomason. However, none of them [was] able to relocate the opening to the cavern when they tried to take a group of archaeologists on a tour of the place.

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1. Steiger, Brad and Ron Calais, Mysteries of Time & Space, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 1974.

2. ibid.

3. Corliss, William, Geological Anomalies, The Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, Maryland, 1974.

4. Corliss, William, Ancient Man: A Handbook of Puzzling Artifacts, The Sourcebook Project, Glen Arm, Maryland, 1978.

5. Welfare, Simon and John Fairley, Arthur C. Clarke’s Mysterious World, Wm Collins & Sons, London, 1980.

6. ibid.

7. ibid.

8. ibid.

9. Bord, Janet and Colin Bord, Mysterious Britain, Granada Publishing, London, 1972.

10. Edwards, Frank, Strangest of All, Ace Books, New York, 1956.

11. Keller, Werner, The Bible As History, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1956.

12. Sprague de Camp, L., The Ancient Engineers, Ballantine Books, New York, 1960.

13. ibid.

14. Collyns, Robin, Ancient Astronauts: A Time Reversal?, Sphere Books, London, 1976.

15. Bharadwaaja, Maharshi, Vymaanika-Shaastra, translated and published by G.R. Josyer, Mysore, India, 1979.

16. Noorbergen, Rene, Secrets of the Lost Races, Barnes & Noble Publishers, New York, 1977.

17. Brandon, Jim, Weird America, E.P. Dutton, New York, 1978.

Part Two

Nexus Magazine

Volume 7, Number 5

November-December 2000 USA

Religious texts and geological evidence suggest that several parts of the world have experienced destructive atomic blasts in ages past






It seems one local character knew how to find the place. Brandon relates that “Death Valley Scotty“, an eccentric who spent millions building a castle-estate in the area, was known to go “prospecting” when funds ran low.


Death Valley Scotty would check out for a few days of wandering in the nearby Grapevine Mountains, bringing back suspiciously refined-looking gold that he claimed he had prospected. Many believe that he got his gold from the stacked gold bars in the tunnel system beneath Death Valley.

Evidence of a lost civilization in Death Valley came in a bizarre report of caves and mummies in the Hot Citizen, a Nevada paper, on August 5, 1947.


The story ran as follows:



A band of amateur archaeologists announced today they have discovered a lost civilization of men nine feet tall in Californian caverns. Howard E. Hill, spokesman for the expedition, said the civilization may be “the fabled lost continent of Atlantis”.

The caves contain mummies of men and animals and implements of a culture 80,000 years old but,

“in some respects more advanced than ours,” Hill said.

He said the 32 caves covered a 180-square-mile area in California’s Death Valley and southern Nevada.


“This discovery may be more important than the unveiling of King Tut’s tomb,” he said.

Professional archaeologists were skeptical of Hill’s story. Los Angeles County Museum scientists pointed out that dinosaurs and tigers which Hill said lay side by side in the caves appeared on Earth 10,000,000 to 13,000,000 years apart.

Hill said the caves were discovered in 1931 by Dr F. Bruce Russell, Beverly Hills physician, who literally fell in while sinking a shaft for a mining claim.

“He tried for years to interest people in them,” Hill said, “but nobody believed him.”

Russell and several hobbyists incorporated after the war as Amazing Explorations, Inc. and started digging. Several caverns contained mummified remains of “a race of men eight to nine feet tall,” Hill said.

“They apparently wore a prehistoric zoot suit – a hair garment of medium length, jacket and knee-length trousers.”


Another cavern contained their ritual hall with devices and markings similar to the Masonic order, he said.

“A long tunnel from this temple took the party into a room where,” Hill said, “well-preserved remains of dinosaurs, saber-toothed tigers, imperial elephants and other extinct beasts were paired off in niches as if on display.

“Some catastrophe apparently drove the people into the caves,” he said.

“All of the implements of their civilization were found,” he said, “including household utensils and stoves which apparently cooked by radio waves.”

“I know,” he said, “that you won’t believe that.”

While of doubtful authenticity, this is an interesting story, to say the least. The last comment about cooking food with radio waves being unbelievable is ironic. That is the one thing that modern readers of the story could certainly believe was true, considering the widespread use of microwave ovens today.

Who had heard of them in 1947?




Sodom and Gomorrah meet Hiroshima and Nagasaki

Probably the most famous of all ancient “nuke ’em” stories is the well-known biblical tale of Sodom and Gomorrah:

And the Lord said, Because the cry of Sodom and Gomorrah is great, and because their sin is very grievous.

Then the Lord rained upon Sodom and upon Gomorrah, brimstone and fire from the Lord out of heaven; And he overthrew those cities, and all the plain, and all the inhabitants of the cities, and that which grew upon the ground.

But his [Lot’s] wife looked back from behind him, and she became a pillar of salt. And lo, the smoke of the country went up as the smoke of a furnace.

(Genesis 18:20; 19:24-26,28)

This biblical passage has come to epitomize the destructive power of God’s wrath visited on those places which sin.


The Bible is very specific about the site of Sodom and Gomorrah plus several other towns; they were in the Vale of Siddim, which was located at the southern end of the Salt Sea (now called the Dead Sea). Other towns in the area, according to the Bible, were Zoar, Admah and Zeboiim (Genesis 14:2). As late as the Middle Ages, a town called Zoar existed in the area.

The Dead Sea is 1,293 feet [394 meters] below sea level and at least 1,200 feet [365 m] deep. The bottom of the sea is therefore about 2,500 feet [762 m] below the level of the Mediterranean. Approximately 25 per cent of the water of the Dead Sea consists of solid ingredients, mostly sodium chloride. Normal ocean water is around 4.6 per cent salt. The Jordan and many smaller rivers empty themselves into this basin, which has no solitary outlet. What its tributaries bring to it in the way of chemical substances remain deposited in the Dead Sea’s 500 square miles.


Evaporation under the broiling sun takes place on the surface of the sea at a rate of over 230 million cubic feet per day. Arab tradition has it that so many poisonous gases come out of the lake that birds could not fly across it, as they would die before reaching the other side.

The Dead Sea was first explored in modern times in 1848 when W. F. Lynch, an American geologist, led an expedition. He brought ashore from his government research ship two metal boats which he fastened onto large-wheeled carts. Pulled by a long team of horses, his expedition reached the Dead Sea some months later.


Lynch and his team discovered that the traditions were correct in that a man could not sink in the sea. They also surveyed the lake, noting its unusual depth and the shallow area or “tongue” at the southern end of the lake. This area is thought to be where the Vale of Siddim was located and the five cities existed. It is possible to see entire forests of trees encrusted with salt beneath the water in this southern part of the lake.

Standard historical theory on the destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah, such as in The Bible As History by Werner Keller,18 holds that the cities of the Vale of Siddim were destroyed when a plate movement caused the Great Rift Valley – of which the Dead Sea is a part – to shift, and the area at the southern end of the Dead Sea to subside. In the great earthquake there were probably explosions, natural gases issuing forth and brimstone falling like rain. This is likely to have happened about 2000 BC, the time of Abraham and Lot, thinks Keller, though geologists place the event many thousands of years before this.


Says Keller:

The Jordan Valley is only part of a huge fracture in the Earth’s crust. The path of this crack has meantime been accurately traced. It begins far north, several hundred miles beyond the borders of Palestine, at the foot of the Taurus mountains in Asia Minor. In the south it runs from the south shore of the Dead Sea through the Wadi el-Arabah to the Gulf of Aqabah and only comes to an end beyond the Red Sea in Africa.

At many points in this vast depression, signs of intense volcanic activity are obvious. In the Galilean mountains, in the highlands of Transjordan, on the banks of the Jabbok, a tributary of the Jordan, and on the Gulf of Aqabah are black basalt and lava…

The subsidence released volcanic forces that had been lying dormant, deep down along the whole length of the fracture. In the upper valley of the Jordan near Bashan there are still the towering craters of extinct volcanoes; great stretches of lava and deep layers of basalt have been deposited on the limestone surface. From time immemorial the area around this depression has been subject to earthquakes. There is repeated evidence of them and the Bible itself records them…

Did Sodom and Gomorrah sink when perhaps a part of the base of this huge fissure collapsed still further to the accompaniment of earthquakes and volcanic eruptions?

As for the pillars of salt, Keller says:

To the west of the southern shore and in the direction of the Biblical “Land of the South”, the Negeb, stretches a ridge of hills about 150 feet high and 10 miles from north to south.

Their slopes sparkle and glitter in the sunshine like diamonds. It is an odd phenomenon of nature. For the most part this little range of hills consists of pure rock salt. The Arabs call it Jebel Usdum, an ancient name, which preserves in it the word “Sodom”. Many blocks of salt have been worn away by the rain and have crashed downhill. They have odd shapes and some of them stand on end, looking like statues. It is easy to imagine them suddenly seeming to come to life.

These strange statues in salt remind us vividly of the Biblical description of Lot’s wife who was turned into a pillar of salt… And everything in the neighborhood of the Salt Sea is even to this day quickly covered with a crust of salt.

However, Keller himself admits that there is a very serious problem with this theory of a cataclysm sending the Vale of Siddim to the bottom of the Dead Sea: it must have happened many hundreds of thousands, even millions, of years ago – at least according to most geologists. Says Keller:

In particular, we must remember there can be no question that the Jordan fissure was formed before about 4000 BC. Indeed, according to the most recent presentation of the facts, the origin of the fissure dates back to the Oligocene, the third oldest stage of the Tertiary period. We thus have to think in terms not of thousands, but of millions of years.

Violent volcanic activity connected with the Jordan fissure has been shown to have occurred since then, but even so we do not get any further than the Pleistocene which came to an end approximately ten thousand years ago. Certainly we do not come anywhere near to the third, still less the second millennium before Christ – the period, that is to say, in which the patriarchs are traditionally placed.

In short, Keller is saying that any geological catastrophe that would have destroyed Sodom and Gomorrah would have had to have happened a million years ago, or so geologists have told him. Keller says that geologists have not found any evidence of a recent catastrophe at the southern end of the Dead Sea, at least not for about 10,000 years. Says Keller:

In addition, it is precisely to the south of the Lisan peninsula, where Sodom and Gomorrah are reported to have been annihilated, that the traces of former volcanic activity cease. In short, the proof in this area of a quite recent catastrophe which wiped out towns and was accompanied by violent volcanic activity is not provided by the findings of the geologists.

So here is the problem: the Dead Sea area may have had a cataclysm that could be the origin of the Old Testament story; however, conservative uniformitarian geologists have said that any such Earth changes must have occurred long before any sort of collective memory of the event.

In late 1999, a new theory was proposed by British Bible scholar Michael Sanders and an international team of researchers who, after several fraught weeks of diving in a mini-submarine, discovered what appears to be the salt-encrusted remains of ancient settlements on the seabed.


Sanders told a television crew from BBC/Channel 4 who were making a documentary about the expedition:

There is a good chance that these mounds are covering up brick structures and are one of the lost cities of the plains, possibly even Sodom or Gomorrah, though I would have to examine the evidence. These Bible stories were handed down by word of mouth from generation to generation before they were written down, and there seems to be a great deal in this one.

Sanders had unearthed a map dating from 1650, which reinforced his belief that the sites of the two cities could be under the northern basin rather than on the southern edge of the Dead Sea.


He recruited Richard Slater, an American geologist and expert in deep-sea diving, to take him to the depths of the Dead Sea in the two-man Delta mini-submarine that was involved in the discovery of the sunken ocean-liner, the Lusitania. Sanders’s location for Sodom and Gomorrah, in the deep northern part of the Dead Sea, is even more at odds with history and geology than Keller’s theory of the cities being at the shallow southern end.

Therefore we come back to the popular theory that these cities were not destroyed in a geological cataclysm but in a man-made (or extraterrestrial-made) apocalypse that was technological in nature. Were Sodom and Gomorrah attacked with atomic weapons, as Hiroshima and Nagasaki were?

Researcher L. M. Lewis, in his book Footprints on the Sands of Time,19 maintains that both Sodom and Gomorrah were destroyed by atomic weapons and that the salt pillars and high salt content around the Dead Sea are evidence of a nuclear blast. Says Lewis:

When Hiroshima was being rebuilt, stretches of sandy soil were found to have been atomically changed into a substance resembling a glazed silicon permeated by a saline crystalloid. Little blocks of this were cut from the mass and sold to tourists as souvenirs of the town – and of atomic action.

Had an even larger explosion pulverized every stone of every building – and had the complete city disappeared into thin air – there would still have been tell-tale indications of what had occurred on the outskirts of the area of devastation. At some points there would surely be a marked difference in the soil or an atomic change in some object of note.

Lewis maintains that if the pillars of salt at the end of the Dead Sea were ordinary salt, they would have disappeared with the periodic rains. Instead, these pillars are of a special, harder salt, only created in a nuclear reaction such as an atomic explosion.

These pillars of salt have indeed lasted a long time. Not only were they present in ancient times, but are still standing today. Lewis quotes from the historian Josephus, who says in his History of the Jews:

Ébut, Lot’s wife, continually turning back to view the city as she went from it, although God had forbidden her so to do, was changed into a pillar of salt; for I have seen it, and it remains to this day.

Comments Lewis:

It should be emphasized that Flavius Josephus lived from 37 to approximately 100 AD. As previously stated, Sodom was disintegrated in 1898 BC. How amazing, then, that Josephus should actually have seen the human “pillar of salt” after it had stood for almost 2,000 years! If it had been ordinary salt, it would have disappeared with the first rains.

There may have been many pillars of salt throughout history, but Lewis thinks the evidence supports an atomic blast:

The atomic change of the soil upon which Lot’s wife stood and that of the shore of Hiroshima have a similarity that cannot be denied! Both had undergone a sudden atomic conversion which could only have been caused by the instant action of nuclear fission.

As those things which equal the same thing must be equal to one another, it is difficult to escape the conviction that as Hiroshima was destroyed, so, by similar means, Sodom was disintegrated and Lot’s wife at the same moment atomically changed. Relying on the veracity of Josephus, the only conclusion that can be reached is that Sodom was destroyed by nuclear fission.

The story of Sodom and Gomorrah is puzzling not just because of the destruction but also because of the personalities involved, such as the angel warning Lot to leave the doomed cities.


Was Lot warned beforehand that the cities were going to be “nuked” by extraterrestrials or humans with high-tech weapons? Lot was warned to get his family out, but his wife looked back and was blinded by the atomic flash. Perhaps her body was even atomically changed.

At the southern end of the Dead Sea today is a modern chemical plant that looks like an alien base. Strange towers shoot up out of the desert. Bizarre buildings with domes and spires are covered with multi-colored lights. One expects to see a flying saucer land at any moment. It is the Dead Sea Chemical Works. During the day it looks like an oil refinery or something similar, but at night the lights that are strung about the facility make it seem otherworldly. This huge chemical plant is said to have an endless supply of valuable minerals, including radioactive salts, with which to work.


Are some of these chemicals the result of an ancient atomic blast?


Atomic War in Ancient India

These verses are from the Mahabharata (written in ancient Dravidian, then later in Sanskrit) and describe horrific wars fought long before the recorder’s lifetime.

  • Various omens appeared among the gods: winds blew, meteors fell in thousands, thunder rolled through a cloudless sky.

  • There he saw a wheel with a rim as sharp as a razor whirling around the soma… Then taking the soma, he broke the whirling machine…

  • Drona called Arjuna and said: “Accept from me this irresistible weapon called Brahmasira. But you must promise never to use it against a human foe, for if you did it might destroy the world. If any foe who is not a human attacks you, you may use it against him in battle. None but you deserves the celestial weapon that I gave you.”

This is a curious statement, as what other kind of foe different from a human might there have been? Are we talking about an interplanetary war?

  • I shall fight you with a celestial weapon given to me by Drona. He then hurled the blazing weapon…

  • At last they came to blows, and seizing their maces struck each other; they fell like falling suns.

  • These huge animals, like mountains struck by Bhima’s mace, fell with their heads broken, fell upon the ground like cliffs loosened by thunder.

  • Bhima took him by the arm and dragged him away to an open place where they began to fight like two elephants mad with rage. The dust they raised resembled the smoke of a forest fire; it covered their bodies so that they looked like swaying cliffs wreathed in mist.

  • Arjuna and Krishna rode to and fro in their chariots on either side of the forest and drove back the creatures which tried to escape. Thousands of animals were burnt, pools and lakes began to boil… The flames even reached Heaven… Indra without loss of time set out for Khandava and covered the sky with masses of clouds; the rain poured down but it was dried in mid-air by the heat.

Several historical records claim that Indian culture has been around for literally tens of thousands of years.


Yet, until 1920, all the “experts” agreed that the origins of the Indian civilization should be placed within a few hundred years of Alexander the Great’s expedition to the subcontinent in 327 BC. However, that was before several great cities like Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro (Mound of the Dead), Kot Diji, Kalibanga and Lothal were discovered and excavated.


Lothal, a former port city now miles from the ocean, was discovered in Gujarat, western India, just in the late 20th century.20 These discoveries have forced archaeologists to push back the dates for the origin of Indian civilization by thousands of years – in line with what the Indians themselves have insisted all along.

A wonder to modern-day researchers, the cities were highly developed and advanced. The way that each city was laid out in regular blocks, with streets crossing each other at right angles and the entire city laid out in sections, gives archaeologists cause to believe that the cities were conceived as a whole before they were built – a remarkable early example of city planning. Even more remarkable is that the plumbing/sewage systems throughout the large cities were so sophisticated – superior to those found in Pakistan, India and many Asian countries today. Sewers were covered, and most homes had private toilets and running water. Furthermore, the water and sewage systems were kept well separated.21, 22, 23

This advanced culture had its own writing, which has never been deciphered. The people used personalized clay seals, much as the Chinese still do today, to officialize documents and letters. Some of the seals found contain figures of animals that are unknown to us today, including an extinct form of the Brahman bull.

Archaeologists really have no idea who the builders were, but their attempts to date the ruins (which they ascribe to the “Indus Valley civilization”, also called “Harappan”) have come up with something like 2500 BC and older, but radiation from the wars apparently fought in the area may have thrown off the date.

The Rama Empire, described in the Mahabharata and Ramayana, was supposedly contemporaneous with the great cultures of Atlantis and Osiris in the West.

Atlantis, well known from Plato’s writings and ancient Egyptian records, apparently existed in the mid-Atlantic and was a highly technological and patriarchal civilization.

The Osirian civilization existed in the Mediterranean basin and northern Africa, according to esoteric doctrine and archaeological evidence, and is generally known as pre-dynastic Egypt. It was flooded when Atlantis sank and the Mediterranean began to fill up with water.

The Rama Empire flourished during the same period, according to esoteric tradition, fading out in the millennium after the destruction of the Atlantean continent.

As noted above, the ancient Indian epics describe a series of horrific wars – wars which could have been fought between ancient India and Atlantis, or perhaps a third party in the Gobi region of western China. The Mahabharata and the Drona Parva speak of the war and of the weapons used: great fireballs that could destroy a whole city; “Kapila’s Glance”, which could burn 50,000 men to ashes in seconds; and flying spears that could ruin whole “cities full of forts”.

The Rama Empire was started by the Nagas (Naacals) who had come into India from Burma and ultimately from “the Motherland to the east” – or so Colonel James Churchward was told. After settling in the Deccan Plateau in northern India, they made their capital in the ancient city of Deccan, where the modern city of Nagpur stands today.

The empire of the Nagas apparently began to extend all over northern India to include the cities of Harappa, Mohenjo-Daro and Kot Diji (now in Pakistan), as well as Lothal, Kalibanga, Mathura and possibly other cities such as Benares, Ayodha and Pataliputra.

These cities were led by “Great Teachers” or “Masters” who were the benevolent aristocracy of the Rama civilization. Today they are generally called “Priest-Kings” of the Indus Valley civilization, and a number of statues of these so-called gods have been discovered. In reality, these were apparently men whose mental and psychic powers were of a degree that seems incredible to most people of today. It was at the height of power for both the Rama Empire and Atlantis that the war allegedly broke out, seemingly because of Atlantis’s attempt to subjugate Rama.

According to the Lemurian Fellowship lesson materials, the populace surrounding Mu (Lemuria, which predated the other civilizations) eventually split into two opposing factions: those who prized practicality and those who prized spirituality. The citizenry, or educated elite, of Mu itself was balanced equally in these two qualities.


The citizenry encouraged the other groups to emigrate to uninhabited lands. Those who prized practicality emigrated to the Poseid Island group (Atlantis), and those who prized spirituality eventually ended up in India. The Atlanteans, a patriarchal civilization with an extremely materialistic, technologically oriented culture, deemed themselves “Masters of the World” and eventually sent a well-equipped army to India in order to subjugate the Rama Empire and bring it under the suzerainty of Atlantis.

One account of the battle, related by the Lemurian Fellowship, tells how the Rama Empire Priest-Kings defeated the Atlanteans. Equipped with a formidable force and a “fantastic array of weapons”, the Atlanteans landed in their vailixi outside one of the Rama cities, got their troops in order and sent a message to the ruling Priest-King of the city that he should surrender. The Priest-King sent word back to the Atlantean General:

We of India have no quarrel with you of Atlantis. We ask only that we be permitted to follow our own way of life.

Regarding the ruler’s mild request as a confession of weakness and expecting an easy victory – as the Rama Empire did not possess the technology of war or the aggressiveness of the Atlanteans – the Atlantean General sent another message:

We shall not destroy your land with the mighty weapons at our command, provided you pay sufficient tribute and accept the rulership of Atlantis.

The Priest-King of the city responded humbly again, seeking to avert war:

We of India do not believe in war and strife, peace being our ideal. Neither would we destroy you or your soldiers who but follow orders. However, if you persist in your determination to attack us without cause and merely for the purpose of conquest, you will leave us no recourse but to destroy you and all of your leaders. Depart, and leave us in peace.

Arrogantly, the Atlanteans did not believe that the Indians had the power to stop them, certainly not by technical means.


At dawn, the Atlantean army began to march on the city. From a high viewpoint, the Priest-King sadly watched the army advance. Then he raised his arms heavenward, and using a particular mental technique he caused the General and then each officer in order of rank to drop dead in his tracks, perhaps of some sort of heart failure. In a panic, and without leaders, the remaining Atlantean force fled to the waiting vailixi and retreated in terror to Atlantis. Of the sieged Rama city, not one man was lost.

While this may be nothing but fanciful conjecture, the Indian epics go on to tell the rest of the horrible story, and things do not turn out well for Rama. Assuming the above story is true, Atlantis was not pleased at the humiliating defeat and therefore used its most powerful and destructive weapon – quite possibly an atomic-type weapon!

Consider these verses from the ancient Mahabharata:

…(it was) a single projectile
Charged with all the power of the Universe.
An incandescent column of smoke and flame
As bright as the thousand suns
Rose in all its splendor… was an unknown weapon,
An iron thunderbolt,
A gigantic messenger of death,
Which reduced to ashes
The entire race of the Vrishnis and the Andhakas.

..The corpses were so burned
As to be unrecognizable.
The hair and nails fell out;
Pottery broke without apparent cause,
And the birds turned white.

After a few hours
All foodstuffs were infected…
…to escape from this fire
The soldiers threw themselves in streams
To wash themselves and their equipment.24

In the way we traditionally view ancient history, it seems absolutely incredible that there was an atomic war approximately 10,000 years ago.


And yet, of what else could the Mahabharata be speaking? Perhaps this is just a poetic way to describe cavemen clubbing each other to death; after all, that is what we are told the ancient past was like. Until the bombing of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, modern mankind could not imagine any weapon as horrible and devastating as those described in the ancient Indian texts.


Yet they very accurately described the effects of an atomic explosion. Radioactive poisoning will make hair and nails fall out. Immersing oneself in water gives some respite, though is not a cure.

Interestingly, Manhattan Project chief scientist Dr J. Robert Oppenheimer was known to be familiar with ancient Sanskrit literature. In an interview conducted after he watched the first atomic test, he quoted from the Bhagavad Gita:

‘Now I am become Death, the Destroyer of Worlds.’
I suppose we all felt that way.

When asked in an interview at Rochester University seven years after the Alamogordo nuclear test whether that was the first atomic bomb ever to be detonated, his reply was:

Well, yes, in modern history.25




Great Civilizations Meet their Doom

Incredible as it may seem, archaeologists have found evidence in India and Pakistan, indicating that some cities were destroyed in atomic explosions.


When excavations of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro reached the street level, they discovered skeletons scattered about the cities, many holding hands and sprawling in the streets as if some instant, horrible doom had taken place. People were just lying, unburied, in the streets of the city. And these skeletons are thousands of years old, even by traditional archaeological standards. What could cause such a thing? Why did the bodies not decay or get eaten by wild animals? Furthermore, there is no apparent cause of a physically violent death.

These skeletons are among the most radioactive ever found, on par with those at Nagasaki and Hiroshima. At one site, Soviet scholars found a skeleton which had a radioactive level 50 times greater than normal.26

The Russian archaeologist A. Gorbovsky mentions the high incidence of radiation associated with the skeletons in his 1966 book, Riddles of Ancient History. 27 Furthermore, thousands of fused lumps, christened “black stones”, have been found at Mohenjo-Daro. These appear to be fragments of clay vessels that melted together in extreme heat.

Other cities have been found in northern India that show indications of explosions of great magnitude. One such city, found between the Ganges and the mountains of Rajmahal, seems to have been subjected to intense heat. Huge masses of walls and foundations of the ancient city are fused together, literally vitrified! And since there is no indication of a volcanic eruption at Mohenjo-Daro or at the other cities, the intense heat to melt clay vessels can only be explained by an atomic blast or some other unknown weapon.28, 29, 30


The cities were wiped out entirely.

If we accept the Lemurian Fellowship stories as fact, then Atlantis wanted to waste no more time with the Priest-Kings of Rama and their mental tricks. In terrifying revenge, they utterly destroyed the Rama Empire, leaving no country even to pay tribute to them. The areas around the cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro have also been desolated in the past, though agriculture takes place to a limited extent in the vicinity today.

It is said in esoteric literature that Atlantis at the same time, or shortly afterwards, also attempted to subjugate a civilization extant in the area of the Gobi Desert, which was then a fertile plain. By using so-called scalar wave weaponry and firing through the centre of the Earth, they wiped out their adversaries – and possibly did themselves in at the same time!

Much speculation naturally exists in connection with remote history. We may never actually know the complete truth, though ancient texts still in existence are certainly a good start.

Atlantis met its own doom, according to Plato, by sinking into the ocean in a mighty cataclysm – not too long after the war with the Rama Empire, I imagine.

Kashmir is also connected with the fantastic war that destroyed the Rama Empire in ancient times. The massive ruins of a temple called Parshaspur can be found just outside Srinagar. It is a scene of total destruction. Huge blocks of stone are scattered about a wide area, giving the impression of explosive annihilation.31 Was Parshaspur destroyed by some fantastic weapon during one of the horrendous battles detailed in the Mahabharata?

Another curious sign of an ancient nuclear war in India is a giant crater near Bombay. The nearly circular 2,154-metre-diameter Lonar crater, located 400 kilometers northeast of Bombay and aged at less than 50,000 years old, could be related to nuclear warfare of antiquity. No trace of any meteoric material, etc., has been found at the site or in the vicinity, and this is the world’s only known “impact” crater in basalt. Indications of great shock (from a pressure exceeding 600,000 atmospheres) and intense, abrupt heat (indicated by basalt glass spherules) can be ascertained from the site.

Orthodoxy cannot, of course, concede nuclear possibilities for such craters, even in the absence of any material meteorite or related evidence. If such geologically recent craters as the Lonar are of meteoric origin, then why don’t such tremendous meteorites fall today?


The Earth’s atmosphere 50,000 years ago probably was not much different from today’s, so a lighter atmosphere cannot be advanced as an hypothesis to explain an immense-sized meteorite, which of course would be considerably reduced by heat oxidization within a gaseously heavier atmosphere. A theory was advanced by American space consultant Pat Frank, to the effect that some of the huge craters on the Earth may be scars from ancient nuclear explosions! 32

The echoes of ancient atomic warfare in southern Asia continue to this day, with India and Pakistan currently threatening each other. Modern India is proud of its nukes, likening them to “Rama’s Arrow”. Similarly, Pakistan would love to use its Islamic atomic bombs on India. Ironically, Kashmir, possibly the site of an earlier atomic war, is the focus of this conflict. Will the past repeat itself in Pakistan and India?

There is always the possibility that this has all happened before. Déjà vu!






18. Keller, Werner, The Bible As History, Hodder & Stoughton, London, 1956.

19. Lewis, L.M., Footprints on the Sands of Time, Signet Books, New York, 1975.

20. Service, Alistair, Lost Worlds, Arco Publishing, New York, 1981.

21. ibid.

22. Kolosimo, Peter, Timeless Earth, University Press, Secaucus, New Jersey, 1974.

23. Reader’s Digest, The World’s Last Mysteries, Reader’s Digest Association, Inc., Pleasantville, New York, 1976.

24. Berlitz, Charles, Mysteries of Forgotten Worlds, Doubleday, New York, 1972.

25. ibid.

26. ibid.

27. Gorbovsky, A., Riddles of Ancient History, Soviet Publishers, Moscow, 1966.

28. Kolosimo, ibid.

29. Tomas, Andrew, We Are Not the First, Souvenir Press, London, 1971.

30. Gorbovsky, ibid.

31. Childress, David Hatcher, Lost Cities of China, Central Asia & India, Adventures Unlimited Press, Stelle, Illinois, 1991.

32. Collyns, Robin, Laserbeams From Star Cities, Sphere Books, London, 1971.


from UFOArea Website

recovered through WayBackMachine Website

“Our research indicates that the entire Great Lakes region (and beyond) was subjected to particle bombardment and a catastrophic nuclear irradiation that produced secondary thermal neutrons from cosmic ray interactions.

The neutrons produced unusually large quantities of 239 Pu and substantially altered the natural uranium abundance ratios (235 U/238 U) in artifacts and in other exposed materials including cherts, sediments, and the entire landscape.

These neutrons necessarily transmuted residual nitrogen (14 N) in the dated charcoals to radiocarbon, thus explaining anomalous dates.”

Richard B. Firestone

Since Atlantis was in the America, and its people were from India, as Gene D. Matlock has certainly proven in his excellent book The Last Atlantis Book You’ll Ever Have to Read, specifically in his chapter “Why Not Look for A-Tlan-Tis in America?” which we have included on this site, then, the Vimanas, war machines, bombs, and terrible wars spoken of in the old Sanskrit manuscripts probably existed not only in the Motherland of India but from there all the way to America, possibly all over the world.


The destruction of Atlantis (A-Tlan-Tis) may not have been brought about by an earthquake, flood, or any other natural disaster, but may have actually been triggered by a nuclear explosion. Earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, floods, etc. may then have followed.

A manuscript, composed in Sanskrit by King Bhoja deals with techniques of warfare, and in particular with certain types of war machines. The work is called Samarangana Sutradhara, or “Battlefield Commander (sometimes abbreviated “the Samar”). The whole of chapter 31 is devoted to the construction and operation of several kinds of aircraft having various methods of propulsion.

King Bhoja, who used the Sanskrit term yantra more often than the more familiar vimana, claims his knowledge was based on Hindu manuscripts which were ancient even in his time, 11th century AD.


Here are some excerpts from this ancient text:

“They were propelled by air and inside is placed a mercury engine with an iron heating apparatus beneath. By means of the power latent in the mercury sets the driving whirlwind in motion. When it has been heated by the controlled fire from the iron containers a thunder power is developed through the mercury. If the iron engine with the properly wielded joints be filled with mercury and fire conducted into the upper part, it develops the power with the roar of the lion.”

“..inside it (the Vimana) one must place the mercury-engine with its iron heating apparatus beneath. By means of the power latent in the mercury which sets the driving whirlwind in motion, a man sitting inside may travel a great distance in the sky in a most marvelous manner.

“Similarly by using the prescribed processes one can build a Vimana as large as the temple of the God-in-motion. Four strong mercury containers must be built into the interior structure.

“When these have been heated by controlled fire from iron containers, the Vimana develops thunder-power through the mercury. And at once it becomes a pearl in the sky.

“Moreover, if this iron engine with properly welded joints be filled with mercury, and the fire be conducted to the upper part it develops power with the roar of a lion.”


Did a War Take Place at the End of the Dryas Period?

The ice cores show that at the end of the last ice age temperatures increased steadily for the next thousand years. Traces of copper, tin and lead show marked increases!

The Older Dryas period ends abruptly with a dramatic drop in temperatures. Extinction of Mammoths as well as the megafauna of North and South America took place about this time. Uranium concentrations in coral jump dramatically from approx. 1.5 parts per million to over 4 parts per million at about this period.

Radio carbon dates at this period are chaotic! Studies of layered deposits laid down by lakes provide confirmation of irregularities in the chronological record Fused desert sands have been found, notably in the Egyptian desert.

All the evidence seems to support the existence of an ancient nuclear war having taken place in the past.

There is no doubt that Samarangana Sutradhara, the Mahabharata, and many other ancient Indian texts exist. There are references to these texts in Indian government and scientific publications. The texts cover a very wide range of topics, from town planning, health and hygiene including a detailed description of vaccination, to wide ranging discussion of mechanics and scientific observation, method and theories. They describe electricity and mechanics that are in full agreement with science of today. They describe Vimanas, aircraft of many designs, that are all scientifically feasible.

Note that the translator above was a person who did not understand the concepts of the ancient documents he was translating. There were no words in his own language of 11the century AD to describe the wonderful things in those ancient texts — he did the best he could.

Also keep in the mind these texts were written some time after a terrible nuclear war took place in which two great civilizations destroyed themselves. The survivors (or more likely, descendants of the survivors) of these civilizations were attempting to record their knowledge for future generations. And having been recorded quite some time after the disaster, the writers themselves were probably not scientists and probably did not understand the material they were recording.


Errors may have occurred as well as these texts were copied and re-copied over the ages.

from Space2001 Website





Nuclear wars in space and deepest antiquity!

There is a feeling amongst some scientists that a highly deadly form of star wars may be taking place between alien civilizations far out in space. Fodder for these theories comes from unexplained explosions witnessed by numerous astronomers.



Deep space explosions

Five or six years ago an article in the Herald Tribune it said there had been at least 80 unexplained explosions in deep space during the last decade alone! This had baffled many of the leading scientists and astronomers who were at a complete loss to explain the phenomenon!


According to the article the largest of these explosions had occurred,

“180,000 light years away in the large Magellanic Cloud outside our galaxy”!

The article also related that,

Ray Klebesadel, a leading scientist at Los Alamos, said this event was definitely not a supernova!”

According to him the explosion was more like a nuclear bomb blast! This was a view also echoed by a nuclear physicist Stanton T. Friedmann who declared:

“Tremendous activity of this sort could well be life out there involved in a war”!

Another quote is from James Oberg of Houston who is on record as saying:

” It is a legitimate theory that star wars may be taking place!”




More recently the continuing phenomenon was dealt with in a piece in the Times of London which outlined the controversy it had sparked! Academics were sharply divided between those who insisted there was no mystery to address and others who were firm converts to the idea of a stellar Armageddon being fought out in the depths of the universe!


Some felt the explosions to be no more than igniting meteors in the Earth’s upper atmosphere!


Then just as adamant was the view that the evidence pointed unmistakably to a point of origin many trillions of miles distant!



Solar system

Significantly prominent occultists and astrologers have always believed that a devastating form of star wars once occurred much closer to home – within the boundaries of our very own solar system! The basis of these views concern the fact that Mars and to some extent the Moon and Venus show signs of once having been filled with running rivers and considerably more of an atmosphere than is presently the case!


Conditions that would certainly make the existence of intelligent life possible!


But inter-planetary wars in the solar system? Could it really have happened?



Enormous collision

What we can say for certain is that far from rising up on the planetary scale of evolution Mars and the Moon are actually decaying! They once held a reasonable atmosphere with running rivers but now look sparse, empty and barren! In fact a closer look at the Martian surface shows that at some stage in it’s history it was subjected to an enormous collision which literally tore out a canyon over 2500 miles long!


Additionally as photos from the Viking landers showed quite plainly the surface of the planet is absolutely strewn with small chunks of rock resembling the debris from some tremendous explosion!  But where could such an explosion have come from?


The solar system now looks so sedately dormant that it’s hard to imagine such violence!



Planet X

For some time it has been theorized that a planet between
Mars and Jupiter just literally exploded into fragments to create what we now know as the asteroid belt!  Planet X as it became known has attracted much fascination!


It’s existence was even theorized by a mathematician Johann Bode.



Bodes Law

According to the theory – known as
Bodes Law – actually the work of Johann Titius – there exists a definite and repeatable ratio of the distances of the planets to the sun. Six planets were then known but astonishingly the distance of the others as yet undiscovered were correctly deduced by this law which is now relegated to no more than a baffling coincidence!

What is of great interest to us is that according to this law there should be another planet between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter, exactly where the asteroid belt now lies!


Occultists believe this was once the location of a sizeable planet that was literally blown apart by an incredible weapon of destruction, or impact with another planetary body! The former would require a weapon considerably more potent than anything we know today, because although nuclear weapons are quite capable of destroying all surface life, the actual structural existence of the world itself would never be threatened!

Mythology which is habitually an eye to events of long ago frequently makes mention of celestial wars, and even the Bible makes at least one reference to a war in the skies!



The Titans and Olympians

In a nutshell occultists believe that the planets Venus, Mars and the Moon were once inhabited by advanced societies who fought out a planetary war on a scale outlined in mythology as the clash between the Titans and Olympians! The result was a Solar System in chaos – the destruction of a planet – and the orbital change of Venus to a position considerably closer to the sun!


In the break-up vast debris such as seen on Mars would have been thrown out in all directions.


The Martian and Lunar atmospheres, together with their rivers and whatever life on them would quite literally have been flung into space rendering the planets forever uninhabitable!



Terrestrial Evidence

On Earth the evidence of nuclear wars deep in antiquity is even more convincing! Here we not only have the physical scars but the graphically written accounts of some of the most ancient texts on Earth.


The Mahabharata, an ancient Indian saga at least five thousand years old speaks of flying machines called Vimanas that were used to launch a powerful weapon of destruction,

“a single projectile charged with all the power of the universe!”

Here is a reference concerning the destruction unleashed by two warring sets of adversaries:

“The Earth shook, scorched by the terrible heat of this weapon. Elephants burst into flames and ran to and fro in a frenzy, seeking a protection from terror. Over a vast area other animals crumpled to the ground and died. The waters boiled, and the creatures residing therein also died. From all points of the compass the arrows of the flame rained continuously!”

Later we find:

“An incandescent column of smoke and fire, as brilliant as ten thousand suns rose in all its splendor. It was the unknown weapon, the iron thunderbolt, …..a gigantic messenger of death!”

The effect of this weapon was that,

“The corpses were so burnt that they were no longer recognizable. Hair and nails fell out. Pottery broke without cause. Birds, disturbed, circled in the air and were turned white. Foodstuffs were poisoned!”



Message for our age

To any other generation verses of this nature would surely have seemed no more than poetic hyperbole. They had after all nothing to compare them with.


Unfortunately we know only too well the awesome capability of nuclear weapons and their immense destructibility, and it would take someone of particularly low imagination to fail to see the similarity between these accounts and what we now know of a nuclear holocaust!



Worldwide perception

Nor is the Mahabharata the only ancient text to describe such things. Similar accounts of great destruction are also found in the Tibetan Stanzas of Dzyan, the beliefs of the Hopi Indians, and even in the Bible!


The destruction of Sodom and Gomorrah is widely thought of in these terms, particularly since their location is now occupied by the mysterious Dead Sea hollow – one of the most inhospitable places on earth!


Charred ruins

Written evidence is one thing, but when it comes to physical evidence of these conflicts this too is very intriguing. Here we enter into the realms of another baffling enigma – the vitrified remains of fortresses, ziggurats, and towers that have been subjected to an unaccountably sharp blast of heat.


In his book Secrets of the Lost Races writer Rene Noorbergen talks of charred ruins to be found between the River Ganges in India and the mountains of Rajamahal.

“The walls have been glazed, corroded, and split by tremendous heat. Within several of the buildings that remain standing even the surfaces of the stone furniture have been vitrified: melted then crystallized. No natural burning flame or volcanic eruption could have produced heat intense enough to cause this phenomenon. Only the heat released through atomic energy could have done this damage”!

Also in this same region a human body was discovered with a radioactivity “which was fifty times above the normal level”.



Worldwide phenomenon

This baffling enigma of vitrified ruins is to be found all across the world. No more so than North America where the strange remains of vitrified rocks and dwelling places defy logical explanation. In South America the Brazilian ruins of Sete Ciddaes are enormously revealing.


Author Noorbergen writes of “ruins melted by apocalyptic energies…”! Elsewhere, in Mesopotamia sizeable ziggurats – a form of early pyramid – have been found melted to their base in a vitrified mass!

In the Arabian desert blackened stones litter the sands over a wide area, showing signs of having been subjected to intense radiation. In Israel the location of the Dead Sea and it’s mysterious connection with Sodom and Gomorrah bears evidence of an amazing focus of heat that is thought to have gouged out the entire area in a massive explosion. Vitrified rock created under intense pressure is a frequent discovery, and in 1952 archaeologists discovered a vitrified area of sand that stretched out over hundreds of square feet!


Apparently deposits like this are similar to those left behind at the White Sands atomic testing site in America!

In fact wherever we look in the world the baffling enigma of vitrified ruins challenges our intellect! From Peru, to Scotland and Scandinavia; to the plateau’s of China and India, this indelible evidence attests to some undeniably violent act! Not everyone will be convinced of a nuclear answer but as we have seen the evidence is extremely compelling.


Intriguingly a number of established scientists also find themselves seduced by the evidence.




Official endorsement

In 1909 when academics were first beginning to grasp the awesome power of the atom, physicist Frederick Soddy wrote in his Interpretation of Radium:

“I believe that there have been civilizations in the past that were familiar with atomic energy, and that by misusing it they were totally destroyed.”

Remarkably Robert Oppenheimer the chief of the Manhattan Project that developed the first atomic device – that we know of – watched the test explosion rise up in a vast mushroom cloud and felt moved to quote from ancient Sanskrit:

“I am become death, the destroyer of worlds”!

Perhaps Oppenheimer, more than anyone, realized that right then and there, at that very moment, man had become reacquainted with a piece of his history that had once cost him so dearly!


The weapon of a “million suns” was again within his possession!